Paraguay http://updates.wri-irg.org/en en Paraguay https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Paraguay <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--4295.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="4295" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 02 Jun 2021</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p style="margin-bottom:11px"><strong>Updated: June 2021</strong></p> <h2>1. Conscription</h2> <h3><em>conscription exists</em></h3> <p>Law 569/75 regulates military service, which is compulsory according to art. 129 of the 20 June 1992 Paraguayan constitution. </p> <h3><em>military service </em></h3> <p>All men aged 18 to 50 are liable for military service. They must take an oath of obedience to the armed forces and the national police.</p> <p>As of 2020, the age for service is between 18 and 25<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1" title="" id="_ednref1">[i]</a> (or 24<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2" title="" id="_ednref2">[ii]</a>) years of age.</p> <p>Military service lasts for one year, and two years in the navy.</p> <p>High school students are allowed to perform their service in two five-week stages.</p> <p>Military service is performed in either the armed forces (army, navy and air force) or the national police force.</p> <p>After performing their service conscripts are in the reserve until they are 50. It is not known whether this involves reservist training.</p> <p>In wartime women must assist the armed forces.</p> <h3><em>postponement and exemption </em></h3> <p>Conscripts allowed postponement receive a deferment document, but it is not known on what grounds postponement is granted.</p> <p>Conscripts may get exempted for physical or psychological reasons.</p> <p>Conscripts who belong to indigenous groups (2% of the population) are constitutionally exempt. [6] However, in 2018 there was a reported case of recruitment of indigenous youngsters.<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3" title="" id="_ednref3">[iii]</a></p> <p>It is known that in order to avoid military service conscripts buy themselves out of military service. This is much used by (mainly rich) young men and usually involves negotiations over the price with the military. Others feign illness in order to be declared unfit to serve.</p> <p>In 2018 it was announced that those between 26 and 50 years of age who have not performed military service would have to pay a military fee of two (2) minimum daily wages per year for eight (8) years. With the minimum daily wage at ₲ 81,252 that amount would rise to ₲ 1,300,000.<a href="#_edn4" name="_ednref4" title="" id="_ednref4">[iv]</a></p> <h3><em>recruitment </em></h3> <p>The Recruitment and Mobilisation Service (DISERMOV) is in charge of recruitment. Twice a year (in February and August) a call-up to appear at the recruitment offices is publicly announced in the press and on billboards. This call-up applies to all young men who have reached the age of 17 and to older men who have not yet presented themselves.</p> <p>The majority of conscripts are rural people who have to serve for one year.</p> <p>There is a special regime about young students of 18 who can have 3 periods of instruction of one month each at CIMEFOR (Student Military Instruction Centre for Reserve Officers Training). Only the first month is obligatory and the other two are optional.<a href="#_edn5" name="_ednref5" title="" id="_ednref5">[v]</a></p> <h3><em>recruitment of minors </em></h3> <p>In the 1990s it was reported that in practice the average recruitment age was 16 and a half. Boys as young as 14 were getting recruited, even though it was illegal to recruit anyone of under 18.</p> <p>In 2006, the Human Rights Committee regretted that the State party had not provided detailed information on steps taken to abolish the recruitment of children for military service and was concerned about the persistence of this practice, especially in rural areas. Child soldiers were said to be used as forced labour, and cases of ill-treatment and death had been reported (articles 6, 8 and 24 of the Covenant). The Committee recommended that: “The State party should abolish the recruitment of children for military service, investigate cases of ill-treatment and death of conscripts and compensate the victims”.<a href="#_edn6" name="_ednref6" title="" id="_ednref6">[vi]</a></p> <p>Nevertheless, by the end of the 2010s the recruitment of minors continues, including through CIMEFOR. In 2019, after it was published that the son of the President of Paraguay was recruited at the age of 17 by permission of his father, lawyers and human rights defenders presented a complaint before the Court for Children and Adolescents, pointing out that the law does not permit to perform the Obligatory Military Service as a minor not even with authorization of the parents.<a href="#_edn7" name="_ednref7" title="" id="_ednref7">[vii]</a> Responding to a question by the Public Defence, the President informed that among the enlisted for the Obligatory Military Service during that period there were not minors, but that in the Institutes of Military Training there were 1,000 citizens, and among them 142 minors: 119 at the Military Highschool Acosta Ñu and 23 at CIMEFOR.<a href="#_edn8" name="_ednref8" title="" id="_ednref8">[viii]</a> One of the lawyers who submitted the complaint pointed out that the law about CIMEFOR states clearly that minors under the age of 18 shall not be admitted, and that the first period of the first year counts as military service and therefore that it is a form of the Obligatory Military Service.<a href="#_edn9" name="_ednref9" title="" id="_ednref9">[ix]</a> However, a Judge of the Court for Children and Adolescents found no breach of the law as for minors entering CIMEFOR.<a href="#_edn10" name="_ednref10" title="" id="_ednref10">[x]</a></p> <p>Following this decision, another complaint was submitted by representatives of various groups before the Public Prosecutor's Office for Children and Adolescents citing new facts. One of them was a statement by the Minister of Defence that there were 400 adolescents in various areas of the Armed Forces (apart from the 23 in CIMEFOR). Another fact is the photos shared by the President on social media showing people in CIMEFOR practising in shooting, which contradicts official statements that CIMEFOR is an educational centre where no military training is taking place.<a href="#_edn11" name="_ednref11" title="" id="_ednref11">[xi]</a></p> <h3><em>forced recruitment </em></h3> <p>Forced recruitment clearly happens in Paraguay, moreover is even an officially accepted recruitment method. In 1993 the Minister of National Defence defended the right of the armed forces to seize people in the street who had not performed their military service. DISERMOV considers it is entitled to employ forced recruitment under art. 34 Law 569/75 according to which the police and military may at any time ask any citizen aged 17 to 50 to produce enlistment or deferment documents, thus compelling them to keep the law.</p> <p>There are numerous cases of the illegal forced recruitment of underage children, yet no official has ever been prosecuted for breaking art. 56 of Law 569/75 which forbids the recruitment of children under the age of 18.</p> <h3><em>professional soldiers</em></h3> <p>In 2012, the law 4733<a href="#_edn12" name="_ednref12" title="" id="_ednref12">[xii]</a> established the possibility to recruit professional soldiers. The period of service is of 1 year and may be extended by mutual agreement for up to 3 years. Eligible are citizens of Paraguay between 19 and 22 years of age, who have completed school education up to the 6th grade, as well as the compulsory military service with good conduct, with no police or judicial record, with proven health and physical fitness for the service, and with any affiliation to a political party of movement suspended.</p> <p>The salary is set as follows:</p> <ol> <li>Corporal 2 (first year of contract), 60% of the minimum wage.</li> <li>Corporal 1 (second year of contract), 75% of the minimum wage.</li> <li>Sergeant 2 (third year of contract), 90% of the minimum wage.</li> </ol> <p>In times of peace, professional soldiers cannot be more than 60% of the personnel in the Category of Troop.</p> <h2>2. Conscientious objection</h2> <h3><em>legal right and legislation</em></h3> <p>Articles 37 and 129 of the 1992 constitution recognize the right of conscientious objection. According to art. 37: "conscientious objection for ethical and religious reasons is recognized (...)." Para. 5 of art. 129 states: "Those who declare their conscientious objection are to perform service beneficial to the civilian population in aid centres designated by law and operated under civilian jurisdiction. The laws implementing the right to conscientious objection shall neither be punitive nor impose burdens heavier than those imposed by military service." </p> <p>In 2006, the Human Rights Committee welcomed the recognition in Paraguay’s Constitution of conscientious objection to military service and the provisional measures passed by the Chamber of Deputies to guarantee respect for conscientious objection given the lack of specific regulations governing this right. However, it regretted that access to information on conscientious objection appeared to be unavailable in rural areas (article 18 of the Covenant). The Committee recommended that: “the State party should pass specific regulations on conscientious objection so as to ensure that this right can be effectively exercised, and guarantee that information about its exercise is properly disseminated to the entire population”.<a href="#_edn13" name="_ednref13" title="" id="_ednref13">[xiii]</a></p> <p>The law regulating the right to conscientious objection is law 4013/2010.</p> <p>Legislation about conscientious objection and alternative civilian service was approved in 2010 but in practice, the alternative civilian service started in 2019.</p> <p>Decree 6363/2011 simply established the National Council of Conscientious Objection to Military Service as the authority which implements the law and administers conscientious objection and the alternative civilian service. Resolution 01/2018 of the National Council of Conscientious Objection to Military Service establishes the Rules of Procedures of this entity.</p> <h3><em>procedure and practice </em></h3> <p>All conscript may announce they are COs.</p> <p>According to law 4013/2010, the declaration of conscientious objection should be in writing and submitted to the Ombudsman (or the national consular representatives for those being abroad) within 20 days from the date someone has to be enlisted. (Article 4). Such declaration suspends enlistment (Art. 3 of Law 4013/2010).</p> <p>The declaration should contain the personal data of the applicant, the ethical or religious reasons of conscientious objection, the place someone would prefer to perform the alternative civilian service and a validated signature. (Art. 5 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>The declaration is considered by the National Council of Conscientious Objection which should decide within 10 days whether it conforms with what it is stipulated in the Constitution and the relevant legislation.</p> <p>Such decisions of the National Council of Conscientious Objection may be appealed to the administrative justice (Tribunal de Cuentas). (Art. 8 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>The National Council of Conscientious Objection is consisted of (Art. 7 of Law 4013/2010):</p> <p>a) The Ombudsman (Defensor del Pueblo) as its president.</p> <p>b) The President of the Permanent Commission of Human Rights of the Senate or a member of it designated by it.</p> <p>c) The President of the Permanent Commission of Human Rights of the Chamber of Deputies or a member of it designated by it.</p> <p>d) A representative of the Ministry of National Defence designated by the Minister.</p> <p>e) A representative of the conscientious objectors selected by ballot among the conscientious objectors the last 5 years before the law 4013/2010 was enacted.</p> <p>The members of the National Council of Conscientious Objection remain in it for the rest of their terms in their relevant entities and the representative of COs for 5 years, coinciding with the parliamentary period. (Art. 3 of the Rules of Procedures)</p> <p>There can be ordinary and extraordinary sessions. Ordinary sessions take place the first and third week of each month. (Art. 8 of the Rules of Procedures)</p> <p>The minimum legal quorum for the sessions is 3 out of the 5 members. (Art. 9 of the Rules of Procedures)Resolutions are approved by majority of the members present in the session and in case of draw when there are only 4 members present, the vote of the President counts as double. (Art. 10 of the Rules of Procedures)</p> <h3><em>substitute service </em></h3> <p>Those who had declared their conscientious objection before the Permanent Commission of Human Rights of either the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate, before the law was enacted, they may opt either to perform the alternative service or pay (once) a contribution equivalent to 5 daily wages (approximately ₲ 406,000 in 2018<a href="#_edn14" name="_ednref14" title="" id="_ednref14">[xiv]</a>-2019<a href="#_edn15" name="_ednref15" title="" id="_ednref15">[xv]</a>). Among them, those in a state of insolvency will be exonerated from payment. (Art. 21 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>Those COs between 18 and 26 years of age are liable for alternative civilian service. Those who had not done so during that time, and until the age of 50, may apply to be recognised as COs and should fulfil what is stipulated in Article 21 of the Law 4013/2010, (which means pay the contribution of 5 daily wages). (Art. 16 of the Rules of Procedures)</p> <p>The alternative service should be of civilian nature, not combative or punitive and for the benefit of the civilian population, in the contribution of the sustainable development of the country and with a remuneration equivalent to that of the Obligatory Military Service and for an equal period as the one in the legislation in force, counting from the first day of performing the assigned alternative service (Art. 10 of Law 4013/2010).</p> <p>The duration of alternative service is:</p> <ul> <li>240 hours for those studying or working</li> <li>480 hours for those not studying or working, with the possibility for the hours of technical training to be considered as part of the fulfilment of the alternative service</li> </ul> <p>The suggestion/preference of the CO about the place of alternative civilian service is not binding (Art. 7). The National Council of Conscientious Objection decides on the place and conditions of the alternative civilian service within 30 days from receiving the declaration. It is also responsible for the supervision and for providing the conscientious objectors with a certificate after the completion of the alternative civilian service. (Art. 8 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>The entities where the alternative service is performed are responsible to file daily forms about the presence, the fulfilment of the service and the time of work, and submit them every three months to the National Council. Once the alternative service is completed, they should send a final report of the fulfilment of it. (Art. 11 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>The maximum duration of daily work and the days off according to the legislation are applicable also in the case of the alternative service. (Art. 12 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>The alternative service is performed in entities of public administration, as well in private entities which are nonprofit, of public interest, especially for the social sectors in much need and of which the benefited do not belong in an exclusive manner to political or religious groups or any other ones of sectarian nature (Art.13 of Law 4013/2010). Among such entities are considered public education centres, hospital and health centres, public institutions of welfare, social action and emergency, and NGOs and other relevant public or private entities. They must be exclusively under civilian jurisdiction. (Art. 14 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>Disciplinary offences may result in warning or suspension of leave and, if repeated, in reassignment to another service or the declaration of the CO as an offender. The disciplinary regime is regulated by the National Council. (Art.18 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <p>Those not fulfilling correctly the alternative civilian service do not receive a certificate and may also be declared as offenders. </p> <p>Those declared as offenders are still liable to the obligations of Article 129 of the Constitution which stipulates the obligation for military or alternative service. (Art. 20 of Law 4013/2010)</p> <h3><em>exemption from the alternative civilian service</em></h3> <p>The following categories are exempted from performing the alternative civilian service (Art. 17 of the Rules of Procedures):</p> <p>a) Any person with a disability</p> <p>b) The citizen who has a serious or terminal illness that prevents him from performing the alternative service, simply by presenting the medical certification.</p> <p>c) Any person whose work by its nature is considered a social service (volunteer firemen, foresters), dully accredited to the National Council.</p> <p>d) Any person who has completed training at the National Service of Professional Promotion or at the National System of Labour Education and Training.</p> <h3><em>problems and criticism</em></h3> <p>In 2018, Serpaj Paraguay detailed various problems of the legislation<a href="#_edn16" name="_ednref16" title="" id="_ednref16">[xvi]</a> including, but not limited to the following:</p> <ul> <li>It violates Article 129, paragraph 5, and Article 24 of the National Constitution. The law requires the young person who declares himself to be an objector to justify and explain the reasons for his objection, in violation of the provisions of Article 129, paragraph 5, of the National Constitution. This states that only the declaration of the condition of the objector is necessary (therefore, no justification is required). It also violates Article 24, which states that "No one may be bothered, investigated or forced to testify because of his beliefs or ideology”.</li> <li>It grants powers to the National Council for Conscientious Objection (a body created by this law) to determine the validity or not of the objector's declaration.</li> <li>It violates Article 14 of the National Constitution which establishes the non-retroactivity of the law.</li> <li>It establishes a time limit of 20 days after the call up for service.</li> <li>The participation in the National Council for Conscientious Objection of a member of the Ministry of Defense puts the impartiality of such a body in question.</li> <li>It grants broad powers to the Council which, in practice, will become superpowers.</li> <li>It ignores declarations of conscientious objection issued by departmental boards.</li> <li>It has a vague, imprecise, ambiguous and generic wording of several articles. This may result in the arbitrary and discretionary application of the provisions contained in the Law by the corresponding authorities. It can even lead to the commission of abuses and human rights violations against young people by State authorities and institutions.</li> </ul> <p>In 2019, War Resisters International reiterated some of the above concerns.<a> </a><a href="#_edn17" name="_ednref17" title="" id="_ednref17">[xvii]</a></p> <h2>3. Draft evasion and desertion</h2> <h3><em>penalties</em></h3> <p>Not obeying call-up is punishable under the Military Penal Code and under Law 569/75. In peacetime offenders may have to serve for six months longer than the normal period. They may not receive any professional qualification or vote until this period of extra service has been completed (art. 64 Law 569/75).</p> <p>Deserters in peacetime get disciplinary punishment and must complete their service. In wartime they may be executed.</p> <h3><em>practice</em></h3> <p>It is not clear whether deserters are being deliberately sought. Many are obliged to stay in hiding and have a precarious existence.</p> <h2>4. Annual statistics</h2> <p>In 1992 there were 79,000 17 and 18-year-old men in Paraguay and in that year 17,000 conscripts performed military service in the armed forces or national police. [6]This means only 20% of conscripts were performing military service. [1] [5] [6]</p> <p>According to official statements, in 2018 there were approximately 58,000 people at the age for military service, but there was a place only for 4,067 in the armed forces.<a href="#_edn18" name="_ednref18" title="" id="_ednref18">[xviii]</a> <a href="#_edn19" name="_ednref19" title="" id="_ednref19">[xix]</a></p> <p>In 2019 according to <a>CIA </a>estimations, the Armed Forces of Paraguay have approximately 14,000 active personnel (8,500 Army; 3,000 Navy; 2,500 Air Force).<a href="#_edn20" name="_ednref20" title="" id="_ednref20">[xx]</a></p> <h3><em>professional soldiers</em></h3> <p>In 2014 it was announced that 780 young people would be hired for that year as “voluntary professional soldiers”.<a href="#_edn21" name="_ednref21" title="" id="_ednref21">[xxi]</a></p> <h3><em>conscientious objectors</em></h3> <p>In 1991 a youth organisations' umbrella group called CONOSMO was formed to demand that the right to conscientious objection be included in the new constitution. SERPAJ Paraguay, the initiator of the group, drafted a document that was approved by the plenary session of the National Constitution Convention. After this CONOSMO encouraged young men to become COs. In September 1993 the first five COs announced themselves publicly. In August 1994, after a third group had announced they were COs, the CO-movement MOC Paraguay was formed. The number of COs rapidly increased to 80 in 1994; 1,457 in 1995 and well over 6,000 in 1997 - that is, 15% of called up conscripts.</p> <p>According to what is cited in the Resolution N° 01/2018 of the National Council of Conscientious Objection, dated 21 December 2018, till that day there were more than 70,000 applications which had been registered to the Permanent Commissions of Human Rights of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate.</p> <p>However, according to the Direction of Conscientious Objection of the Ombudsman (Defensoría del Pueblo), between 1992 and 2010, there were about 120,000 objectors.<a href="#_edn22" name="_ednref22" title="" id="_ednref22">[xxii]</a> According to Serpaj Paraguay, by the end of 2009 there were about 136.500.<a href="#_edn23" name="_ednref23" title="" id="_ednref23">[xxiii]</a></p> <p>According to official statements, in 2018 there was a place only for 2,800 conscientious objectors.<a href="#_edn24" name="_ednref24" title="" id="_ednref24">[xxiv]</a></p> <p>In May 2019 it was announced that 50,000 conscientious objectors which had been registered would be called up for alternative service in July.<a href="#_edn25" name="_ednref25" title="" id="_ednref25">[xxv]</a> In July 2019, it was said that the number was at least 57,000 conscientious objectors but it corresponded to the register which opened in 2010 when the law about alternative service entered into force. As for 2019, till then there were 17,000 applications with a monthly average of 3,000 conscientious objectors.<a href="#_edn26" name="_ednref26" title="" id="_ednref26">[xxvi]</a></p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr size="1" /> <div id="edn1"> <p><a href="#_ednref1" name="_edn1" title="" id="_edn1">[i]</a> <a href="http://www.ejercito.mil.py/index.php/educacion/servicio-militar">http://www.ejercito.mil.py/index.php/educacion/servicio-militar</a></p> </div> <div id="edn2"> <p><a href="#_ednref2" name="_edn2" title="" id="_edn2">[ii]</a> <a href="https://www.armadaparaguaya.mil.py/index.php/servicio-militar-obligatorio">https://www.armadaparaguaya.mil.py/index.php/servicio-militar-obligatorio</a></p> </div> <div id="edn3"> <p><a href="#_ednref3" name="_edn3" title="" id="_edn3">[iii]</a> ABC, “Militares reclutan a indígenas para servicio militar en Mgal. Estigarribia”, 23/2/2018. <a href="https://www.abc.com.py/edicion-impresa/politica/militares-reclutan-a-indigenas-para-servicio-militar-en-mcal-estigarribia-1677593.html">https://www.abc.com.py/edicion-impresa/politica/militares-reclutan-a-in…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn4"> <p><a href="#_ednref4" name="_edn4" title="" id="_edn4">[iv]</a> HOY, “FF.AA. de la era Abdo: la idea de recaudar a costa de los que 'chulearon' el servicio militar” 1/10/2018. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ff.aa-de-la-era-abdo-la-idea-de-recaudar-a-costa-de-los-que-chulearon-el-servicio-militar">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ff.aa-de-la-era-abdo-la-idea-de-recaudar-a-costa-de-los-que-chulearon-el-servicio-militar</a></p> </div> <div id="edn5"> <p><a href="#_ednref5" name="_edn5" title="" id="_edn5">[v]</a> SERPAJ – PY, “El servicio militar obligatorio como sistema disciplinador y control social de jóvenes; El derecho a la objeción de conciencia, en retroceso”, 2018, p. 336. <a href="https://www.serpajpy.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/LIBERTAD-Objecion-conciencia.pdf">https://www.serpajpy.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/LIBERTAD-Objecio…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn6"> <p><a href="#_ednref6" name="_edn6" title="" id="_edn6">[vi]</a> Human Rights Committee, Concluding Observations on the second periodic report of Paraguay, 24/4/2006, para. 18. <a href="http://undocs.org/CCPR/C/PRY/CO/2">http://undocs.org/CCPR/C/PRY/CO/2</a></p> </div> <div id="edn7"> <p><a href="#_ednref7" name="_edn7" title="" id="_edn7">[vii]</a> HOY, “Polémica por menores de 18 años en cuarteles: piden que Defensoría de Niñez intervenga”, 4/1/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/polemica-por-menores-de-18-anos-en-cuarteles-piden-que-defensoria-de-ninez-intervenga">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/polemica-por-menores-de-18-anos-en-cu…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn8"> <p><a href="#_ednref8" name="_edn8" title="" id="_edn8">[viii]</a> Ultima Hora, “Hay 142 menores enrolados entre Cimefor y Liceo Militar”, 9/1/2019. <a href="https://www.ultimahora.com/hay-142-menores-enrolados-cimefor-y-liceo-militar-n2790394.html">https://www.ultimahora.com/hay-142-menores-enrolados-cimefor-y-liceo-mi…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn9"> <p><a href="#_ednref9" name="_edn9" title="" id="_edn9">[ix]</a> HOY, “Menores en SMO pueden derivar en demanda internacional”, 14/1/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/menores-en-smo-pueden-derivar-en-demanda-internacional">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/menores-en-smo-pueden-derivar-en-demanda-internacional</a></p> </div> <div id="edn10"> <p><a href="#_ednref10" name="_edn10" title="" id="_edn10">[x]</a> Ultima Hora, “Rechazan medida cautelar para proteger a menores en cuarteles”, 16/1/2019. <a href="https://www.ultimahora.com/rechazan-medida-cautelar-proteger-menores-cuarteles-n2791962.html">https://www.ultimahora.com/rechazan-medida-cautelar-proteger-menores-cu…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn11"> <p><a href="#_ednref11" name="_edn11" title="" id="_edn11">[xi]</a> HOY, “Abdo y cimeforistas practican tiros y "anticuarteles" reavivan la polémica”, 18/1/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/abdo-y-cimeforistas-practican-tiros-y-anticuarteles-reavivan-de-vuelta-la-polemica">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/abdo-y-cimeforistas-practican-tiros-y…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn12"> <p><a href="#_ednref12" name="_edn12" title="" id="_edn12">[xii]</a> <a href="https://www.bacn.gov.py/leyes-paraguayas/3141/ley-n-4733--crea-la-jerarquia-del-soldado-profesional-en-la-categoria-de-tropas-de-las-fuerzas-armadas-de-la-nacion">https://www.bacn.gov.py/leyes-paraguayas/3141/ley-n-4733--crea-la-jerar…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn13"> <p><a href="#_ednref13" name="_edn13" title="" id="_edn13">[xiii]</a> Human Rights Committee, Concluding Observations on the second periodic report of Paraguay, 24/4/2006, para. 18. <a href="http://undocs.org/CCPR/C/PRY/CO/2">http://undocs.org/CCPR/C/PRY/CO/2</a></p> </div> <div id="edn14"> <p><a href="#_ednref14" name="_edn14" title="" id="_edn14">[xiv]</a> HOY, “Jóvenes de 18 a 26 años en la mira: cuartel, objeción (a pagar con servicio) o multa de 400 mil”, 20/12/2018. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/jovenes-de-18-a-26-anos-en-la-mira-cuartel-objecion-a-pagar-con-servicio-o-multa-de-400-mil">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/jovenes-de-18-a-26-anos-en-la-mira-cu…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn15"> <p><a href="#_ednref15" name="_edn15" title="" id="_edn15">[xv]</a> HOY, “Convocan a los 50 mil jóvenes que se anotaron como objetores de conciencia”, 30/5/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/convocan-a-los-50-mil-jovenes-que-se-anotaron-como-objetores-de-conciencia">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/convocan-a-los-50-mil-jovenes-que-se-…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn16"> <p><a href="#_ednref16" name="_edn16" title="" id="_edn16">[xvi]</a> SERPAJ – PY, “El servicio militar obligatorio como sistema disciplinador y control social de jóvenes; El derecho a la objeción de conciencia, en retroceso”, 2018, p. 337-339.</p> </div> <div id="edn17"> <p><a href="#_ednref17" name="_edn17" title="" id="_edn17">[xvii]</a> WRI, “Paraguay: Reglamentar la Objeción por Conciencia - Estrategia de los Estados para restringir el derecho”, 28/3/2019. <a href="https://wri-irg.org/es/story/2019/paraguay-reglamentar-la-objecion-por-conciencia-estrategia-de-los-estados-para">https://wri-irg.org/es/story/2019/paraguay-reglamentar-la-objecion-por-…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn18"> <p><a href="#_ednref18" name="_edn18" title="" id="_edn18">[xviii]</a> HOY, “FF.AA. de la era Abdo: la idea de recaudar a costa de los que 'chulearon' el servicio militar” 1/10/2018. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ff.aa-de-la-era-abdo-la-idea-de-recaudar-a-costa-de-los-que-chulearon-el-servicio-militar">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ff.aa-de-la-era-abdo-la-idea-de-recaudar-a-costa-de-los-que-chulearon-el-servicio-militar</a></p> </div> <div id="edn19"> <p><a href="#_ednref19" name="_edn19" title="" id="_edn19">[xix]</a> HOY, “Ante psicosis de jóvenes, militares reiteran que no arrearán ni controlarán baja”, 28/12/2018. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ante-psicosis-de-jovenes-militares-reiteran-que-no-arrearan-ni-controlaran-baja">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ante-psicosis-de-jovenes-militares-re…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn20"> <p><a href="#_ednref20" name="_edn20" title="" id="_edn20">[xx]</a> CIA World Factbook.</p> </div> <div id="edn21"> <p><a href="#_ednref21" name="_edn21" title="" id="_edn21">[xxi]</a> HOY, “Instan a jóvenes a cumplir con el Servicio Militar”, 29/1/2014. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/instan-a-jovenes-a-seguir-la-carrera-militar">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/instan-a-jovenes-a-seguir-la-carrera-militar</a></p> </div> <div id="edn22"> <p><a href="#_ednref22" name="_edn22" title="" id="_edn22">[xxii]</a> HOY, “57 mil jóvenes para servicio civil en vez de SMO y todo sobre Ley que entra a regir”, 3/7/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/57-mil-jovenes-para-servicio-civil-en-vez-de-smo-y-todo-sobre-ley-que-entra-a-regir">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/57-mil-jovenes-para-servicio-civil-en-vez-de-smo-y-todo-sobre-ley-que-entra-a-regir</a></p> </div> <div id="edn23"> <p><a href="#_ednref23" name="_edn23" title="" id="_edn23">[xxiii]</a> SERPAJ – PY, “El servicio militar obligatorio como sistema disciplinador y control social de jóvenes; El derecho a la objeción de conciencia, en retroceso”, 2018, p. 338.</p> </div> <div id="edn24"> <p><a href="#_ednref24" name="_edn24" title="" id="_edn24">[xxiv]</a> HOY, “FF.AA. de la era Abdo: la idea de recaudar a costa de los que 'chulearon' el servicio militar” 1/10/2018. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ff.aa-de-la-era-abdo-la-idea-de-recaudar-a-costa-de-los-que-chulearon-el-servicio-militar">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/ff.aa-de-la-era-abdo-la-idea-de-recaudar-a-costa-de-los-que-chulearon-el-servicio-militar</a></p> </div> <div id="edn25"> <p><a href="#_ednref25" name="_edn25" title="" id="_edn25">[xxv]</a> HOY, “Convocan a los 50 mil jóvenes que se anotaron como objetores de conciencia”, 30/5/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/convocan-a-los-50-mil-jovenes-que-se-anotaron-como-objetores-de-conciencia">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/convocan-a-los-50-mil-jovenes-que-se-…</a></p> </div> <div id="edn26"> <p><a href="#_ednref26" name="_edn26" title="" id="_edn26">[xxvi]</a> HOY, “57 mil jóvenes para servicio civil en vez de SMO y todo sobre Ley que entra a regir”, 3/7/2019. <a href="https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/57-mil-jovenes-para-servicio-civil-en-vez-de-smo-y-todo-sobre-ley-que-entra-a-regir">https://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/57-mil-jovenes-para-servicio-civil-en-vez-de-smo-y-todo-sobre-ley-que-entra-a-regir</a></p> </div> </div> <div> <div> <div id="_com_8" language="JavaScript" onmouseout="msoCommentHide('_com_8')" onmouseover="msoCommentShow('_anchor_8','_com_8')"> <p> </p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4295&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="jl5TPkz2TwQJxQ79d6tqVzUqJRSYbJYMShtc8ACyRjo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 warresisters 4295 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Paraguay#comments Antimilitarist group in Paraguay rejects the creation of the National Council of Conscientious Objection https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2018/antimilitarist-group-paraguay-rejects-creation-national-council-conscientious-objection <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41431.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41431" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2018-03/paraguayan_marines_at_ancon_marine_base_2010-07-19.jpg?itok=bP6blIhA 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-03/paraguayan_marines_at_ancon_marine_base_2010-07-19.jpg?itok=WbWgb3I4 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-03/paraguayan_marines_at_ancon_marine_base_2010-07-19.jpg?itok=WbWgb3I4" alt="Paraguayan marines" title="By MC1 Brien Aho [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 23 Mar 2018</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><a href="http://www.serpajpy.org.py/">Serpaj</a>, who have worked closely with WRI and through <a href="http://ramalc.org/">RAMALC</a> – the antimilitarist network in Latin America and the Caribbean – <a href="http://www.ultimahora.com/serpaj-rechaza-conformacion-consejo-nacional-objecion-conciencia-n1135140.html">have rejected</a> the creation of the National Council of Conscientious Objection (<i>Consejo Nacional de Objeción de Conciencia</i> [CNOC]) in Paraguay, and say they do not recognise their authority.</p> <p>Serpaj argues that the creation of the council violates Articles 129 and 24 of the Constitution, because it will require young people who declare their conscientious objection to justify and explain their reasons for applying for the card. In fact, the objector should not need to explain their motivations for applying for CO status.</p> <p><a href="/en/node/41430">Read more...</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/1" hreflang="en">Right to Refuse to Kill</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41431&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="4yRn-076ShnrYE362SWhsRgf4D9PWMSbZ8aOoiV93qM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 23 Mar 2018 12:35:30 +0000 HBrock 41431 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2018/antimilitarist-group-paraguay-rejects-creation-national-council-conscientious-objection#comments Serpaj rejects configuration of National Council of Conscientious Objection https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2018/serpaj-rejects-configuration-national-council-conscientious-objection <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41430.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41430" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 23 Mar 2018</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Olivia McIntyre</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Peace and Justice Service of Paraguay (<a href="http://www.serpajpy.org.py/">Serpaj</a>) calls for the abolition of Law 4033, for violating various Articles of the National Constitution. In addition, Serpaj rejects the creation of the National Council of Conscientious Objection (CNOC) and does not acknowledge it as a valid authority.</p> <p>Serpaj reported in a statement on Thursday that the creation of CNOC violates Articles 129 and 24 of the National Constitution – given that Law 4033 of the year 2010 states that young people who declare themselves as conscientious objectors justify and explain their reasons for applying for the card and for not succumbing to obligatory military service.</p> <p>On one hand, Serpaj explains that paragraph 5 of Article 129 of the National Constitution indicates that the objector need only present their declaration of objection, without needing to justify their reasons before the Council. They also explain that Article 8 of Law 4013 establishes that among the services of the Council is to declare the origin of conscientious objection to obligatory military service as provided by the declarant. For Serpaj, this point authorises the National Council of Conscious Objection to investigate the reasons for which a young person declares themselves as an objector and thus determine if their<br /> reasons are valid.</p> <p>In this sense, Serpaj reports that Law 4013 violates Article 24 of the Constitution (the Magna Carta) which states: “Nobody can be disturbed, investigated or forced to declare their reasons for objection based on their beliefs or ideology.” In addition, they claim that this said law confirms the right to conscientious objection within 20 days of being drafted into the military.</p> <p>However, Serpaj reinforces that objection is a human right and therefore characterises itself as being imprescriptible (with no time limit). The National Council of Conscientious Objection was established, as stipulated by Law 4013, to regulate and accelerate the process for conscientious objectors. Moreover, they had announced that a fine could be issued to those who have not complied to obligatory military service or applied for the conscientious objector card within the required time.</p> <p>In the missive, it refers to Article 21 in Law 4013 as retroactive in stating that all current objectors are obliged to perform a civilian service or pay a sum of 5 minimum wages - the equivalent of approximately 345.000 Paraguayan Guaraní - in order to avoid community service.</p> <p>On the other hand, the Council was formed by the Commissioner of the State, the Presidents of the Human Rights Commissions of Congress, a civilian representative of the conscientious objectors (chosen from among those who have voiced their objection in the last 5 years), and a representative of the National Ministry of Defence.</p> <p>Serpaj reveals that the recent integration of the Ministry of Defence representative could create an interference of the military jurisdiction in the civil jurisdiction, which twists the nature of the objection.</p> <p>For all of the reasons expressed, Serpaj Paraguay urges young people not to present their declarations of conscientious objection before the Council.</p> <p>In addition, the non-governmental organisation (NGO) claims that it does not recognise the National Council of Conscientious Objection as a valid authority because to support the configuration of the said agency would be a violation of the National Constitution. “This can lead to the commission of abuse and violations of young people’s human rights by the authorities and institutions of the State,” Serpaj concludes.</p> <p>Serpaj is an international human rights organisation which, for 20 years, has been working on the dissemination of the right to conscientious objection of obligatory military service.</p> <p>Translation of <em><a href="http://www.ultimahora.com/serpaj-rechaza-conformacion-consejo-nacional-objecion-conciencia-n1135140.html">Serpaj rechaza conformación de Consejo Nacional de Objeción de Conciencia</a></em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_57 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-bio--bio-only.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio.html.twig * field--paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--field-bio.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-bio field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>Translation: </em>Olivia McIntyre</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41430&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="2BND28adH2Z4BXlVfgxWS6qViYl3DB3DuNUc8AgLH4o"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 23 Mar 2018 12:16:59 +0000 HBrock 41430 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2018/serpaj-rejects-configuration-national-council-conscientious-objection#comments Demilitarisation and Remilitarisation in Paraguay https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/demilitarisation-and-remilitarisation-paraguay <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--40989.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="40989" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2017-10/marcha_por_los_derechos_humanos_en_asuncion.jpg?itok=5JgkCBQz 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-10/marcha_por_los_derechos_humanos_en_asuncion.jpg?itok=n3Dj9OiJ 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-10/marcha_por_los_derechos_humanos_en_asuncion.jpg?itok=n3Dj9OiJ" alt="Marchers holding banners and photos walk through a city street filling the road." title="A march in Asunción denouncing the dismissal of President Lugo and demanding the truth about the Marinakue massacre on International Human Rights Day 2012. Photo credit: Mateuverte." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 29 Oct 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Pelao Carvallo</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>After the military coup that ended the dictatorship of Alfredo Stroessner in February 1989, Paraguay went through a period of social and institutional demilitarisation.  This process began early in the last decade of the last century and accelerated towards the end of that decade and the start of the next, its pace set by the national political context.  Four components define this process of demilitarisation:</p> <ol> <li>The ending of the institutional triad made up of the government, the armed forces and the Colorado Party (which was the majority party and in government), incorporating the abolition of the requirement to be affiliated to this party in order to enroll in the Military Academy.</li> <li>Progressive cuts to the military budget and the estates and properties of the armed forces so that by 2003, the percentage of GDP represented by the military budget had fallen to 0.9% from 1.4% in 1998.  Military properties were vacated to the benefit of powerful civilians, as happened with the lands of Marinakue.</li> <li>The discrediting of the armed forces due to the fear that the military coup attempts linked to the general Lino Oviedo would be successful and fear of the support that he counted on within the armed forces and the Colorado Party.</li> <li>The discrediting of military service due to the death of conscripts, the existence of child soldiers and the use of soldiers as free labour for officials and non-commissioned officers, as well as by the success of the struggle for the legal recognition and use of the right to conscientious objection, in which Paraguayan social and youth movements played an outstanding role.</li> </ol> <p>Following on from this process of demilitarisation, Paraguay has lived through a process of remilitarisation for more than a decade, which continues into the present.</p> <h1>Militarisation, demilitarisation, remilitarisation and transarmament</h1> <p>An important debate exists around militarisation, especially concerning the forms that it takes in Latin America and the Caribbean, but not around the concepts of demilitarisation and remilitarisation.  Here, militarisation is understood:</p> <blockquote><p>as the projection of two distinct but constitutive processes: one in which military institutions set themselves up as central actors across the whole field of public security policy and another in which civil institutions belonging to that field acquire a military ethos through the triggering of isomorphic institutional change mechanisms.  Militarisation is a process in which the logic of the military paradigm is adopted, accompanied by a process of change in the distribution of power with regard to the structuring of state violence in favour of military institutions (Morales &amp; Pérez, 2014).</p> </blockquote> <p>Militarism is understood as:</p> <blockquote><p>a system, a logic and a set of norms, that perpetuates and recreates our societies and our daily lives, that perpetuates rigid gender norms and is rooted in hetero-sexist ideas about gender which define masculinity as physically powerful and aggressive and femininity as week and passive.  Ultimately, militarism depends on and recreates a racist and hierarchical world order which tells us whose life is worth defending and whose is not (Andersson, 2012).</p> </blockquote> <p>Meanwhile, remilitarisation:</p> <blockquote><p>shows itself in the increase in the strength of troops and military spending; new purchases of equipment and weapons, the construction of new facilities, the appointment of active or retired officers to the Ministry of the Interior (Security), the higher ranks of the police and other public offices; the militarisation of the police; the creation of military units within the police force; the passing of laws and decrees which grant greater quotas of power and functional autonomy to the army, and joint army-police operations (Cajina, 2014).</p> </blockquote> <p>Disarmament is understood as a “process of reducing armaments, military spending and the capacity to launch a military offensive which allows for the elimination of the harshest demonstrations of direct violence but which upholds elitism and militarism as well as civil delegation on matters of defence (Utopía Contagiosa, 2012).</p> <p>Instead of disarmament, antimilitarism puts forward transarmament as a proposal for a paradigm shift on defence, which entails “progressively reducing the power of the military, reconverting that which is military to civilian ends and progressively increasing the power of the nonviolent; necessitating a paradigm shift in society and the participation of grassroots movements in the design of defence policies” (Utopía Contagiosa, 2012).</p> <p>These concepts will allow an antimilitarist analysis of the process of demilitarisation and remilitarisation in Paraguay in recent decades to be carried out.</p> <h1>The process of demilitarisation in post-dictatorial Paraguay</h1> <p>The fall of the dictator Stroessner did not immediately spell the break-down of the triad of the government / armed forces / Colorado Party but did signify the start of its disintegration.  Social and institutional advances began to open the way to question the cultural predominance of militarism in Paraguayan society and it was to be the civilian responses to the threats of a military coup by General Lino Oviedo that would accelerate the process of demilitarisation in Paraguay<a name="_Hlk497038278" id="_Hlk497038278">.  Lino Oviedo, already general, led or actively participated in attempted coups in 1996 (the events of April), 1999 (the Paraguayan March) and 2000. </a> The decision in April 1996 of the president Juan Carlos Wasmosy to dismiss Lino Oviedo and twenty-seven commanders, chiefs, prefects and directors of the armed forces, reinforced the path of institutional demilitarisation.  With this action – supported by the United States and the Organisation of American States (OAS) – Wasmosy positioned civil leadership as dominant relative to military leadership although not without dissent from within the armed forces, especially the army, which was embodied in Lino Ovieda.  The signing of the Protocol of Ushuaia, which gave powers to Mercosur to suspend all relations in the event of a breakdown of democracy, can also be understood within the process of institutional demilitarisation in Paraguay.</p> <p>The process of demilitarisation reached its peak under the government of the Colorado President Nicanor Duarte (2003 – 2008); symbolically it would be Duarte who, for the first time in the transition to democracy, did not have a military or ex-military man in the position of the Minister of Defence throughout the whole of his mandate.</p> <p>Under the government of Nicanor Duarte, the process of remilitarisation that we are currently living through began.  This can be observed from the moment when the both the government and the Paraguayan political elite felt that the threat of military autocracy represented by Lino Oviedo had been overcome, or was at least manageable politically and electorally, and an institutional normality that ensured governability had been established.  Lino Oviedo had been transformed into a “democratic” political actor whose direct influence on the military had been removed.  Furthermore, with the reduction in military spending, the military had been warned about the consequences of further coup adventures.  Lino Oviedo, the symbol of military autocracy, was so reduced and rehabilitated that he was able to launch his candidacy for the presidency in 2008.  Without success.</p> <h1>Remilitarisation in Paraguay</h1> <p>The government of Nicanor Duarte restored civil rights to Lino Oviedo and, in doing so, symbolically bolstered the power and impunity of the military.  In the case of the seven youths murdered during the Paraguayan March, the perpetrators not only went unpunished but the families of the victims were punished by the judicial system.</p> <p>It would be the government of Fernando Lugo (2008 – 2012) which would give impetus to the remilitarisation of the country.  Symbolically, at institutional level, once again a military man – a retired general – was put in charge of the Ministry of National Defence and the defence budget was significantly increased, reaching 1.4% of GDP by the year 2012 according to data from the World Bank.</p> <p>Fernando Lugo, using the excuse of the existence of the EPP (<em>Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo</em> or Paraguayan People’s Army), declared a state of emergency and carried out joint police and military operations in the northern zone of the country (San Pedro, Concepción and Amambay).  During the period 2009 – 2011, this part of the country saw five joint operations and the declaration of two states of emergency.  At the same time, Lugo’s government issued the law 4013/2010 regulating conscientious objection, which unconstitutionally brought in mandatory civil service (with retroactive effect).</p> <h1>Marinakue and remilitarisation in Paraguay</h1> <p>The ultimate expression of the dynamic of remilitarisation was found in the parliamentary coup d’état following the Marinakue massacre of June 2012 in which two militarised units of the National Police played a role: the GEO (<em>Grupo Especial de Operaciones</em> or Special Operations Group) and the FOPE (<em>Fuerza Operativa Policial Especializada</em> or Specialised Police Task Force).  Landless farm workers occupying land that had belonged to the state before Stroessner passed it to its new owner, the politician and businessman Blas Riquelme, were evicted by a large number of heavily-armed and militarised police officers in a raid that resulted in the deaths of eleven workers and six police officers.  The participation of military forces in operations carried out at the site of the massacre has also been confirmed.</p> <p>The massacre that occurred in Marinakue was the justification used by the parliament to overthrow President Lugo.  It fell to the National Police to take charge of implementing the coup, repressing those who demonstrated against the deposition of Lugo as an attack on democracy, both in Asunción and in the other departments of the country.</p> <p>The Marinakue massacre was a fatal, but not logical, consequence of the process of remilitarisation that Paraguay was and still is living, under the gentle auspices of the United States’ militaristic agenda.</p> <h1>Militarised policing</h1> <p>The way in which the different specialised groupings of the National Police acted in Marinakue can be seen to conform fully to the military forms and procedures on the use of force and its consequences adopted by the police command.  These forms and procedures are:</p> <ol> <li>The excessive and disproportionate use of force with the aim of annihilating any resistance before it occurs.  This means the use of a force six times greater than the maximum number of farmers present in the area or more than ten times greater than the number of those that National Police considers as having the capacity to resist.  The excessive use of force is amplified through the use of automatic and lethal weapons and means of aerial surveillance, monitoring and intimidation: in this case, a helicopter.</li> <li>The farmers settled in the locality are conceived of as "enemies" to be erradicated from the territory, which must be invaded and cleared out.  The farmers are not treated as citizens, as local inhabitants or as civilians with rights.  The police assumed a discourse of friend / enemy reflected in the epithets of “invaders” and “supposed farmers”.</li> <li>The planning of the police intervention to involve an encircling movement, a pincer-action, attacks by the rear-guard and the vanguard, the use of militarised grouping of National Police at the front and back and the presence of not yet mlitarised groupings (<em>Orden y Seguridad</em> or Order and Security) as a way of experientially involving them in the process of militarisation.</li> <li>The complete abandonment of the protocol of intervention in mass occuptions based on human rights and introduced by the Interior Ministry,</li> </ol> <p>The results of the intervention denote strategic planning on the part of military staff: the massacre achieved results in at least four areas:</p> <ol> <li>The total annihilation of the occupation resulting in deaths and injuries, legal charges and detentions amongst the farmers, as well as the total loss of their property and assets.</li> <li>The discrediting and defeat in the media of the landless farmer movement.  It was not possible to reoccupy Marinakue until three years later.  The landless movement has had little subsequent impact nationally.</li> <li>The overthrow of the "human rights sector" within the National Police and the Interior Ministry.  The protocol of intervention in mass occupations was annulled and the minister fell.  The commanders involved in the massacre were promoted.</li> <li>The overthrow of the centre-left government and the recovery of power by right-wing militaristic elements, at first by the PLRA (<em>Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico</em> or Authentic Radical Liberal Party) and then by the Colorado Party with the administration of Horacio Cartes, who promotes a powerful agenda of remilitarisation.</li> </ol> <h1>Ongoing remilitarisation</h1> <p>The post-coup governments of the PRLA vice-president Federico Franco (2012 – 2013) and of the Colorado Horacio Cartes (2013 until present) have continued and deepened the process of remilitarisation.  Under the Cartes administration, the military budget has been increased (to 1.4% of GDP for 2014, according to the World Bank) and powers regarding the control of military operations have been removed from Congress.  In order to be able to do this, President Cartes has achieved the amendment of Law 1337/99 on Defence and National Security, granting the executive the legal power to decide on the deployment of the armed forces in internal combat by simple presidential decree.  At the same time, he obtained the sanction of Congress for Law 5036/13 which enables the armed forces to fight the EPP.</p> <p>For seven years now, police and military operations have been carried out and states of emergency declared in the north of the country, cumulating in the establishment of the FTC (<em>Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta</em> or Joint Task Force), composed of the armed forces, the National Police and SENAD (<em>Secretaria Nacional Antidrogas</em> or National Anti-Drug Secretariat) by President Cartes, whose administration has meant years of human rights violations, restrictions on civil liberties, constant looting and infringements of the rights of the poorest in that area.</p> <h1>Conclusions</h1> <p>Demilitarisation in Paraguay was not an expression of an antimilitarist strategy as it did not question militarism in its fundamental aspects: elitism and the delegation of defence issues by citizens.  The militaristic status quo, although superficially acted upon during the Oviedo emergency, was maintained.  The foundations that support militarism in Paraguay were left untouched and the process of remilitarisation has not encountered many difficulties in establishing itself and recovering by 2014 a level of institutional power equal or greater to that which it had in 1993.  Remilitarisation is a lived reality in Paraguay, especially the intervention zones of the Joint Task Force, and in the rest of the country where military logic is used to resolve any conflict or popular demand and deal with emergencies.</p> <p><em>This article is an extract from a paper originally presented at the IX Workshop of the Paraguay Social Studies Group, “Paraguay in the Social Sciences”, Asunción, June 2016.</em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_20 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-bio--bio-only.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio.html.twig * field--paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--field-bio.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-bio field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Pelao is a Chilean writer and organizer based in based in Asunción, Paraguay, and a member of the War Resisters' International Council.  He is part of the afinity group GAAA! (Group de Afinidad Antimilitarista de Asunción), the Latin American antimilitarist magazine <em>Periférica </em>and the library and social centre <a href="https://comunaemma.blogspot.co.uk/">La Comuna de Emma, Chana y Todas las Demás</a>.  In Chile, he was a founder member of the antimilitarist group <a href="https://nicasconiuniforme.wordpress.com/">Ni Casco Ni Uniforme</a>.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=40989&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="mf8PLgSPj1nX-lBHcPLOeMbbaUC9kNlAsX_Ijuw6EKs"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sun, 29 Oct 2017 13:29:23 +0000 Sarah 40989 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/demilitarisation-and-remilitarisation-paraguay#comments Meeting of WRI's network in Latin America and the Carribbean https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/meeting-wris-network-latin-america-and-carribbean <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--40902.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="40902" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2017-09/ramalc.jpg?itok=LIUuh65I 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-09/ramalc.jpg?itok=_qHB62fx 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-09/ramalc.jpg?itok=_qHB62fx" alt="Members of RAMALC at a meeting in Mexico, 2015" title="Members of RAMALC at a meeting in Mexico, 2015" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 22 Sep 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Antimilitarist Network of Latin America and the Caribbean (RAMALC) will meet in Asunción, Paraguay, between the 4th and 11th of November 2017. The meeting will be based around the theme “Strategies against the militarisation of bodies and territories” and is being organised by RAMALC, together with Serpaj-Paraguay, el Movimiento de Objeción de Conciencia MOC-PY and the Grupo de Afinidad Antimilitarista Caracolito.</p> <p>The meeting will include the following activities:</p> <h1>Visit to Marinakue</h1> <p>The participants will visit the Marinakue/Curuguaty area, and build solidarity with <em>campesinos</em> (peasants) who live there. They will see the impact of militarisation in the area, hear testimony from the communities there, and share experiences of resistance from other countries in the region, to strengthen ties of solidarity.</p> <h1>Internal meeting of the RAMALC network</h1> <p>The RAMALC network will meet to evaluate the past year, and plan activities for the coming year, identify objectives of the network and the activities they will take part in.</p> <h1>Training</h1> <p>There will be three days of training, focused on “training the trainers” with tools for social change, dedicated to participatory methodologies to strengthen group processes and strategies against militarisation in the region, and carrying out street actions.</p> <h1>Street action</h1> <p>During the training, the RAMALC network and other Paraguayan organisations in Asunción will take part in action to denounce the militarisation of bodies and territories. During the action they will use tools and strategies shared during the training.</p> <h1>Public activities</h1> <p>There will also be open meetings and seminars to present the experience of RAMALC and the experiences of resistance from different countries in the region.</p> <p>Read more information in Pelao Carvallo's artcile<em> <a href="/es/articulo/2017/militarizacion-en-paraguay">Militarización en Paraguay</a></em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/66" hreflang="en">Nonviolence Training</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/670" hreflang="en">RAMALC</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=40902&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="LaTOGIWk6UWZ3o4cR-Vo3XF8aKt3Dihtyh1UZ8gSt6c"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 22 Sep 2017 15:26:12 +0000 Andrew 40902 at http://updates.wri-irg.org Different Motivations in the Latin American Movement: Rafa's anarchist perspective https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/cobook-online/different-motivations-in-latin-america <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--25180.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="25180" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 18 Nov 2015</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Return to <a href="/cobook-online">Conscientious Objection: A Practical Companion for Movements</a></h3> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;"><em>Rafael Uzcategui is a Venezuelan conscientious objector, author, and human rights activist who has been active with War Resisters' International, and in antimilitarism more generally, for many years. Here, he summarises the main tendencies of the Latin American conscientious objection movement, and details how his own nonviolent anarchist position fits into this picture.</em></p> <p>During the eighties, many Latin American countries were living under military dictatorships or suffering the consequences of civil war. These were also the days of the Cold War, during which the US considered Latin America one of its 'zones of influence': almost like a back garden. The traumatic and progressive democratisation process meant that broad swathes of the continent's youth developed an antimilitarist sentiment, which began to take on an organised and political dimension. As an adolescent at the beginning of the nineties in Barquisimeto, a town 5 hours away from the Venezuelan capital of Caracas, my peers and I had to hide ourselves twice a year for fifteen days, to avoid compulsory military service. Otherwise they would seize us on the streets and, without wasting words, force us into a truck, with others just as terrified, and from there take us to the barracks. For many of us, these forced recruitment raids or 'press gangs' were the starting point for our rejection of authority and of the military uniform.<span style="font-family: Arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="background: transparent;"></span></span></span></p> <!--break--><p></p> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;">It was a religious initiative, SERPAJ (the Peace and Justice Service), founded in 1974 in Colombia, which was responsible in many Latin American countries for promoting values such as active nonviolence, a culture of peace, and the idea of conscientious objection as a right which ought to and could be demanded of the authorities. Many of the initiative's offices, for example those in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile and Argentina, were the driving force behind the establishment of local conscientious objection movements, but it was in Paraguay that the initiative made the most significant advances: in 1992, the members of this branch managed to ensure that the Paraguayan constitution should formally recognise conscientious objection in one of its articles. The next year, the first Paraguayan conscientious objectors declared themselves as such, gaining media attention and managing to disseminate their message.</p> <p> </p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_full" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4fe14d8b-28a7-4acc-9c9a-0095fd2893a6" peace="" title="" to="" yes="" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/images/Foto-SERPAJ-Ecuador-4-300x225-615x461.home.jpg?itok=_8SXtk6c 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/images/Foto-SERPAJ-Ecuador-4-300x225-615x461.home.jpg?itok=_8SXtk6c" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p style="text-align: left;"><span><span style="font-family: Arial,sans-serif;">In </span></span>1994, the first Latin American meeting on conscientious objection took place in La Asuncion, and the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Conscientious Objection was established, which, even before the days of the internet, managed to coordinate activities in several countries and edit the magazine 'Objecting'. The network's different groups enhanced the subject matter with which it dealt to cover a broader critique of militarism, such that with time, the network became the Latin American Coordination of Conscientious Objection, which existed until 2004. There are several reasons for its decline thereafter. The first is that many countries, across the continent, banned forced military recruitment raids or 'press gangs', which were the primary target against which activists had mobilised. They also allowed for conscientious objection in various laws. The autonomy the network wanted to maintain from NGOs also left it with few economic resources for carrying out campaigns and organising meetings. Since 2005, War Resisters' International (WRI) has attempted, with relative success, to promote an antimilitarist network in Latin America, calling for meetings, joint declarations, and trainings for nonviolent direct action.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;">Three main tendencies developed within the Latin American conscientious objection movement: the religious tendency, the anti-imperialist tendency, and the anarchist tendency. SERPAJ and various NGOs represent the first, which forms part of a plethora of initiatives which fall under the rubric of 'liberation theology' and in which the objection is based on the commandment 'thou shalt not kill'. The anti-imperialist tendency was formed of broadly Marxist groups, which refused compulsory military service for tactical reasons, but supported the notion of a 'popular army' as much as they supported the national liberation struggles of the guerrillas. These groups were particularly active in denouncing the presence of North American military bases and the North American military school which trained a majority of Latin American top military brass (the higher ranks of Latin American militaries). The third tendency, with fewer adherents but an integral analysis of militarism and its consequences, were the anarchists, who rejected the proposition of an alternative civilian service to the state, but who were prepared to enter local coalitions which confronted concrete manifestations of militarism in every day life. Among the anarchists were to be found the punks, whose bands and fanzines helped disseminate the movement. Women were a minority in all three tendencies, and feminist critiques of the military received little attention. One shortcoming was that, despite the 'opportunity' represented by the separation of mothers from their sons due to compulsory military service, few women took part in the initiatives in their capacity as mothers and grandmothers.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;">The debates between anarchists and anti-imperialists, according to context, were tense within the conscientious objection movement. One bone of contention was the Cuban government. Another was support – or rather, the impediment of criticism, which is also a form of support – for guerrillas such as the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia, Shining Path, and the Sandinist National Liberation Front, as well as the relationship with leftist political parties. In 1994, the emergence of the Zapatistas' National Liberation Army in Mexico brought the debate about the nonviolence/ armed struggle dichotomy to the fore. The anarchists rejected the notion that 'bad' militarism only emanated from the Unites States, in contradistinction to a potentially 'good' militarism of the left. Rather, they affirmed that the army, by its very nature, was a synthesis of negative values which they rejected: obedience to authority, hierarchy, xenophobia, machismo, homophobia, the valorisation of force, etc. It was for this reason that when a militarist 'of the left', Hugo Chavez, took the presidency of Venezuela in 1999 and became a point of reference for Latin American anti-imperialism, communication between anti-imperialists and anarchists became fraught. However, a faction of anarchism in Latin America today questions the peace culture of the conscientious objection movement and advocates 'spontaneous violence' and the 'social warfare' of so called 'insurrectionalism'.</p> <p>In Latin America, antimilitarism as an identity has never had its own development, separate from the three tendencies described above. Participating in a political meeting and describing yourself as an 'antimilitarist' can lead to one of two things: you will either be looked at like an alien from another planet, or you will be met with the prejudice that being a pacifist surely means not believing in anything, not wanting to get your hands dirty or having to deal with 'problems'. It has never been easy to promote antimilitarism in a continent where the model activist for social change is the patriarchal figure of 'Che' Guevara. After the abolition of compulsory military service in many countries, many thought that antimilitarism had already achieved its objectives, however the integral critique of what the military represents, as a weapon of domination, should continue to have currency in movements for social change today.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><em>Translated from Spanish by Elisa Haf</em></p> <h3>Go to next chapter: <a href="/cobook-online/richards-story">Richard's Story</a></h3> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/215" hreflang="en">Ecuador</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/195" hreflang="en">Chile</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/88" hreflang="en">The Americas</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=25180&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="zyfy9TVO_7THUTE2DpBKNdh29cks8Busqo_HJO0YaxA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 18 Nov 2015 14:15:20 +0000 HBrock 25180 at http://updates.wri-irg.org International Human Rights Mission to Paraguay denounces the increasing militarisation of the country https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2014/international-human-rights-mission-paraguay-denounces-increasing-militarisation-country <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--22867.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="22867" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 28 Jan 2014</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_1_3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9513bc40-c3b1-415c-b9b9-8d7d49cd4a4f" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_325x325/public/tucuatipoty.img_assist_custom-200x142.jpg?itok=h7s9lKBO 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/medium/public/tucuatipoty.img_assist_custom-200x142.jpg?itok=WZ1D9BLw" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> Last November in Paraguay, WRI's affiliate - <a href="http://www.serpajpy.org.py/">Serpaj Paraguay</a> - worked with with human rights organsation Codehupy to host an international mission, formed by 43 members from eight countries. The mission was organised to verify the sharp deterioration of human rights conditions in Paraguay, particularly since last August, when President Horacio Cartes took office. Last August, the Paraguayan congress passed a series of laws giving war-like powers to the executive. Since then, the army has been deployed to the three northern departments of San Pedro, Ambabay and Concepción (which together comprise 12% of the country’s territory).</p> <p><a href="http://forusa.org/blogs/susana-pimiento/reclaiming-space-for-nonviolence-paraguay/12755">Read more...</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=22867&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="WggjlVeFAqEuvQXD094-M6nZesoz0L3oTJjpDFdSyKM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 28 Jan 2014 16:12:00 +0000 javier 22867 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2014/international-human-rights-mission-paraguay-denounces-increasing-militarisation-country#comments Monsanto and the parliamentary coup d’etat in Paraguay https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/monsanto-and-parliamentary-coup-detat-paraguay <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--20644.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="20644" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 22 Nov 2012</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>Pelao Carvallo</em></p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_1_3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b139e34c-d269-467c-9a20-21455700bd9b" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_325x325/public/Monsantoparaguay.img_assist_custom-266x200.jpg?itok=_xf9vgVO 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/medium/public/Monsantoparaguay.img_assist_custom-266x200.jpg?itok=xcI_XJOM" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> Monsanto brought GM into Paraguay in the same way that it has usually done elsewhere: by smuggling. And smuggling imposed GM soya, Monsanto soon achieved its legalisation by means of a powerful lobbying apparatus. And along with this soya came aerial and ground fumigation of glyphosate, and with that poisonous pesticide came diseases, contamination, malformation and deaths. The parliamentary coup d’etat occurred not long after (15-22 June 2012), effected to a large degree by Monsanto's agents at the Paraguayan parliament.</p> <p>A month and a half after the parliamentary coup d’etat, the de facto president Federico Franco, violating Paraguay’s own environmental legislation, approved through a presidential decree the use of GM corn. At the same time, and into September, the use of GM corn and cotton seeds was also approved, by irregular presidential procedures. </p> <p>The work of Monsanto’s lobby after the parliamentary coup d’etat didn’t have any more obstacles to face, having reached the presidential office, which has publicly defended, very vocally, GM seeds. These 'liberations' remain in force today, despite the protests and demands of environmentalists, small and medium-holding farmers and indigenous communities, amongst others.</p> <p>The principal instigator of the parliamentary coup d’etat, the parties which dominate the National Congress, have maintained a close relationship with the transnational agriculture businesses for a long time, owing to the fact that those parties represent - and are largely composed of - agricultural entrepreneurs that have been using GM seeds illegally for a long time.</p> <p>GM crops introduced by the de facto government will bring about the mass use of pesticides, especially glyphosate, of which the Paraguayan people already have a bitter experience: their use has been very damaging, even causing deaths, and it primarily affects indigenous communities and the families of small and medium-holding farmers.</p> <p>These damages were exposed in scientific studies conducted by the Incarnation Regional Hospital, which showed the prevalence of cases of congenital malformations in pregnant women living less than a thousand metres from areas of pesticide fumigation, and also in those whose homes were being used to store the pesticides. The investigation by the paediatrician Stela Benitez Leite showed that the malformations increased in frequency if the people were living 'less than a kilometre' from the soya fields, or if they wore no protection when in the fumigated fields. The investigation took place in 2006 and 2007 and was published in the journal of the American Association of Paediatricians. The results show that at least 40% of the pregnant women exposed to glyphosate gave birth to children with congenital malformations.</p> <p>During the government of Fernando Lugo, before the coup d’etat, the right-wing sector of the government, in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, had already tried to illegally 'liberate' Monsanto’s GM cotton seed Bollgard BT. The protests of farmers’ organisations and environmentalists saw that the National Service of Vegetable and Seed Quality and Sanitation (SENAVE) didn’t include the seed in their records, thus prohibiting its use. </p> <p>Monsanto then began an aggressive campaign through the business sectors and the mass media closely linked to them to boost the use of GM seeds, and at the same time to provoke the fall of those in the government who had blocked the legal entry of GM seeds into the country. The illegal entry of seeds (by means of smuggling) cannot be prevented. </p> <p>The media campaign was carried out by the Zuccolillo Group, whose principal shareholder is Aldo Zuccolillo, owner of the right-wing newspaper ABC Color - the most important in the country. Zuccolillo is also director of the Interamerican Press Society (SIP). The Zuccolillo Group is linked to Monsanto through its position as the principal Paraguayan partner of Cargill, one of the biggest transnational agribusinesses in the world. Cargill built one of the biggest bulk-carrier ports in Paraguay, Puerto Unión, over the River Paraguay in the metropolitan area of Asunción, without making any provision to make the river water - which supplies the city - drinkable.</p> <p>The agricultural entrepreneurs and the right-wing Ministry of Agriculture at the time were also part of this campaign - a campaign which ended the day that Lugo's government was deposed and the vice-president Federico Franco, a liberal right-wing entrepreneur, assumed the presidency. The campaign had been successful; a lobbyist for GM seeds had gained power.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/351" hreflang="en">Monsanto</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=20644&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="b8Eyc941yluno8OeYJyog2EtHiKbLxkfiPFv4Vfpd1I"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 22 Nov 2012 11:46:46 +0000 javier 20644 at http://updates.wri-irg.org Paraguay: Pressure on conscientious objectors https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/paraguay-pressure-conscientious-objectors <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--20458.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="20458" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 03 Oct 2012</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Paraguay's de-facto government of Federico Franco, which came into power after a "parliamentary coup" which ousted the country's elected President Fernando Lugo in June 2012, is increasing the pressure on conscientious objectors in the country. The department on conscientious objection reported that more than 500 young people apply for conscientious objection daily, to avoid a fine which is prescribed in the law on military service.</p> <p>The protests began when the Paraguayan authorities began to enforce articles of the military service law that require the payment of a fine or military tax from all those who did not do military service and had not been legally exempted. In addition, employers of draft evaders would also face the same fine - up to three month of the minimum salary.</p> <p>The office of the Ombudsman for Human Rights has received several complaints from employers in the capital Asuncion and from around the country that the Department of Recruitment of the Armed Forces is demanding from employers that they check the documents of all their employees and of everyone seeking employment.</p> <p>Early September, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Justice and Labour, and Command of the Armed Forces and the Human Rights Ombudsman office signed an agreement and set up a commission to analyse the law on military service (Ley 569/1975) and the law on conscientious objection (Ley 4013/2010).</p> <p>WRI's section in Paraguay, the Movement for Conscientious Objection (MOC) remains alert and is opposed to the attempts by the new government to re-establish a de-facto compulsory military service in the country.</p> <p><em>Sources</em>: <a href="//www.rnw.nl/espanol/article/paraguay-objetores-de-conciencia-en-alerta" target="”_blank”">Radio Nederland Latinoamerica: Paraguay: Objetores de conciencia en alerta</a>, 6 September 2012; <a href="//www.lanacion.com.py/articulo/88718-comision-analiza-aplicabilidad-de-las-leyes-del-servicio-militar-y-de-la-objeccion-de-conciencia.html" target="”_blank”">La Nacion: Comisión analiza aplicabilidad de las leyes del servicio militar y de la objección de conciencia</a>, 4 September 2012</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=20458&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="QVthZt-o9jin-C5ZEp80ep6hQY00KcKiHf_Pd3_XYvc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:18:02 +0000 HBrock 20458 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/paraguay-pressure-conscientious-objectors#comments Editorial https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/editorial-13 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--20428.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="20428" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 25 Sep 2012</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Since the coup d'etat in Paraguay, WRI has been following the situation in Paraguay closely. At the WRI Council meeting we had a session on Paraguay, where Council member, Pelao Carvallo, who lives in Paraguay, gave a presentation about how the coup was orchestrated and the resistance to it. As we send this statement, an antimilitarist week is taking place in Paraguay, with MOC Paraguay (a WRI affiliate) being one of the main organisers. WRI will continue to work in support of the Paraguayan antimilitarist and nonviolent movement. </p> <p>Javier Gárate</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=20428&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="rKKYdzWwwAiDYeSTnoZQCm6oX0zreo-acTjNT8Xn7aI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 25 Sep 2012 15:49:22 +0000 javier 20428 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/editorial-13#comments