Argentina http://updates.wri-irg.org/en en Exporting militarism: how Israeli companies market repression in Latin America https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/exporting-militarism-how-israeli-companies-market-repression-latin-america <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41873.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41873" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2019-11/bope_brazil_police.jpg?itok=1LHXClVs 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-11/bope_brazil_police.jpg?itok=beKTei9p 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-11/bope_brazil_police.jpg?itok=beKTei9p" alt="Several black-clad and heavily armed police officers" title="Members of the BOPE (Brazilian Special Police Operations Unit) in Brazil. Photo: André Gustavo Stumpf/Flickr CC2.0" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 14 Nov 2019</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Nada Hussien </span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><i>On the first day of our Antimilitarism in Movement conference, Nada Hussien discussed the impact of Israeli militarisation around the world. Here is an edited version of her speech:</i></p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">As a Palestinian refugee, as a woman, and as a human rights’ defender, I am here to share my experience with Israeli militarization. This is not a personal experience – this is the experience of all my people, who share a fear that the whole world will become a replicated copy of the Israeli militarized doctrine. I am here to re-emphasize the importance of all the groups and movements that are subject to this doctrine to join our efforts, and to put an end to the arms race around the world.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Very quickly, I am going to share some examples of what life is like for Palestinians living under Israeli militarization and apartheid:</p> <ul> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Palestinian communities face collective punishment, such as the closure of whole villages, roads, checkpoints, and house demolitions. The Israeli state destroys Palestinian houses for a number of reasons. In Jerusalem this approach is used to push people outside the borders of East Jerusalem and into the surrounding areas.</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Palestinians have a whole different understanding of time and distance as a result of the checkpoints. Journeys are extended to avoid checkpoints.</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Palestinians are subjected to night raids, when soldiers are ordered to shoot to kill or to create physical disabilities.</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Palestinians and Israelis live separate lives, with different laws – a form of apartheid. For example, Palestinians are deprived from many academic and career opportunities.</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">In June 2019, a Palestinian prisoner died in an Israeli jail as a result of medical negligence. Palestinian female prisoners went on strike to protest their living conditions, especially the installation of security cameras. Families of prisoners face insulting measures during visits and when attending trials, including strip searches, harassment, and being arbitrarily stopped from visiting their loved ones</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Our bodies are militarized, including my own body. As a woman, Israel considers my ability to reproduce a threat, and therefore, all Palestinian women are targets. Israeli politicians have called for killing or raping women.</li> </ul> <p><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Considering</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> all that, it scares us, as Palestinians, to see this </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">replicated</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">in other</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">parts of</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> the world. Militarization in the global south, especially in Latin America is not new, </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">but</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">in recent decades, Israeli weapons, training, and expertise have been key to this militarization</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">.</span></p> <h1 lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Exporting repression</h1> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Latin America has had a key role in the development of Israel’s military industry. In 1973, Israel’s first major export of war planes was concluded with the dictatorship in El Salvador<span style="background: #ffffff">. </span><span style="background: #ffffff">In</span><span style="background: #ffffff"> the following years, Israeli Arava planes reappeared in various countries, </span><span style="background: #ffffff">including </span><span style="background: #ffffff">the killing fields of the dictatorships. </span><span style="background: #ffffff">F</span><span style="background: #ffffff">or example, </span><span style="background: #ffffff">they were</span><span style="background: #ffffff"> used in the ‘death flights’ during the Dirty War in Guerrero, Mexico, when they used them to throw activists and community leaders into the sea.</span></p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"><span style="background: #ffffff">I</span><span style="background: #ffffff">sraeli </span><span style="background: #ffffff">military</span><span style="background: #ffffff"> support </span><span style="background: #ffffff">for Latin American </span><span style="background: #ffffff">dictatorships has been enormous</span><span style="background: #ffffff">.</span><span style="background: #ffffff"> </span><span style="background: #ffffff">t</span><span style="background: #ffffff">he</span> percentage of purchases of Israeli weapons during various dictatorships include:</p> <ul> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Argentina (1976-1983) 95%</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">El Salvador (1972-1979) 92%</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Honduras (1972-1981) 81%</li> </ul> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Still today, the most repressive, most right-wing regimes and coup regimes in Latin America all rely on Israeli support; Honduras has received help since the beginning of the coup against President Zelaya, Bolsonaro’s government is looking for military and security cooperation with Israel, and Colombia’s president Uribe was one of the biggest buyers of Israeli weapons.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Many police forces and intelligence units in Latin America where trained by Israeli units like the Mossad (Israeli foreign intelligence force) and ‘private’ Israeli security companies. In Guatemala in 1982, the “Dos Erres” massacre was committed by soldiers trained by an Israeli company called ISDS, using weapons manufactured in Israel. ISDS is still operating in many countries around the world, including Brazil and Mexico. In the favelas in Brazil, the militarised police unit BOPE (Special Police Operations Unit) cooperates with ISDS, and the methods of repression in the favelas and in Palestine are very similar. BOPE occupies the rooftops of homes to control and kill people, just as the Israeli military does in Palestinian cities. What we call ‘flying check-points’ - temporary, ad-hoc military control posts where people are stopped, harassed and sometimes killed - is another feature regularly used in both the favelas and in Palestine.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Colombia has its own history of Israeli trainings. Yair Klein, is a former lieutenant in the Israeli army and founder of Spearhead Ltd, a private mercenary company. Through Spearhead Ltd, Klein trained the infamous AUC (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia), a coalition of right-wing death squads. Klein has been convicted by a Colombian court but never extradited, and is living freely in Israel.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Cyber espionage is another top seller of Israel’s military industry. Pegasus is spy software used against human rights defenders, journalists and others by repressive regimes across the globe. Facebook recently banned another Israeli company called Archimedes, who - similar to Cambridge Analytica – specialise in manipulating elections. Archimedes have been highly active in Brazil, among other countries.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">It is important to understand that these tech companies are anything but independent from Israel’s military and political strategy. The revolving door between Israel's top spy unit – military intelligence Unit 8200 – and the country's hi-tech and cyber sector is confirmed by Yair Cohen, a former commander of Unit 8200 and today heads the intelligence cyber department of Elbit Systems, who said: "It's almost impossible to find a technology company in Israel without people from 8200". The process is quite simple: former Unit 8200 personnel are allowed to use the unit’s technology to build their own start-ups (sometimes making immense profits) and in turn can use them to influence politics, support their allies or gain access to information across the globe.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Many Israeli arms and technologies are sold as “field tested” or “proven effective in field”, meaning they were used and proven effective on my people in Gaza and the West Bank, and will be used against other groups and movements fighting for social justice.</p> <h1 lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">More than weapons</h1> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Israel doesn’t just market weapons – it also sells its military doctrine, a doctrine built on the belief that in addition to external threats, people inside also are a threat and therefore must be controlled and monitored. After decades of training and policy dictations, this militarized mentality has caught on with Latin American regimes. As a result, the lines between military forces and police forces have vanished in many countries.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Militarization is no longer only about different weapons or vehicles, but has become a matter of controlling all aspects of people’s lives through systems of surveillance and cyber security. Through initiating programs like “Smart Cities”, regimes are installing systems (mostly Israeli) to control and monitor people. Israeli drones are sold all over the continent and are proven to be used against social and peasants movements, in addition to other surveillance and security technologies.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Based on all that, it’s only fair to argue that forcing a military embargo on Israel isn’t just important for Palestinians, but it’s also very important to the nations in Latin America and all over the world.</p> <h1 lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Calling for an embargo</h1> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">In 2005, inspired by the South African anti-apartheid movement, the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions coalition formed. BDS is a form of non- violent pressure on Israel, with three demands:</p> <ul> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands and dismantling the Wall,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Recognizing the fundamental rights of the Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel to full equality,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Respecting, protecting and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties as stipulated in UN Resolution 194.</li> </ul> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">In 2011 the BDS Palestinian national committee issued a call for a comprehensive military embargo on Israel, and started an international campaign. Israel’s military occupation and apartheid regime simply couldn’t continue to violate our rights day after day if governments around the world ended military and security relations with Israel. It would be economically and technologically unsustainable.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">The military and security industrial complex is a core component of Israel’s economy and ensures the sustainability of its military aggression and occupation: according to Israel’s ex-defense minister Ehud Barak, 150,000 Israeli households - or about 10% of the population - depend economically on this sector. Israel has licensed 6,800 arms and security services providers, making this the largest industry in Israel. This still doesn’t count the hi-tech sector, largely depending on the commercialisation of intelligence and military research and applications. Only an effective military embargo can make peace and justice more profitable and interesting for Israel’s establishment than continued war and aggression.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">While it’s clear that a full military embargo could only be achieved through a UN resolution, activists can:</p> <ul> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">pressure banks and companies to divest,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">protest Israeli military presence in their countries,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">academics can submit motions and petitions pressuring their institutions to stop joint military research with Israeli universities,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">campaign against complicit corporations,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">lobby parliamentarians and political party representatives,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">lobby local authorities and governments to take action.</li> </ul> <p>This campaign is having an impact with lots of evidence that joint efforts and continuous campaigning can affect the global structure of militarism:</p> <ul> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Many banks and financial institutions have divested from Elbit Systems,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Elbit lost contracts in France and Denmark after public campaigns,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">G4S lost contracts worth millions of dollars with unions, banks, universities and other bodies,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Dozens of city councils, including the cities of Dublin and Barcelona, have endorsed a military embargo of Israel,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil cancelled a satellite program with Elbit Systems,</li> <li lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">The first US cities have pledged not to allow their police to be trained by Israeli companies.</li> </ul> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">The scope of the military embargo campaign is widening, more activists and groups are joining, and we won’t stop until Israel complies with international law, and until all oppressed people around the world achieve their rights of freedom, justice, self- determination and sovereignty.</p> <p lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">  </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_22 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/228" hreflang="en">Israel</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/204" hreflang="en">El Salvador</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/242" hreflang="en">Honduras</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/99" hreflang="en">Brazil</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/what-militarisation-policing" hreflang="en">What is the militarisation of policing?</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/430" hreflang="en">Elbit Systems</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41873&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="uhVYZkCmGJyp4hqLfwb-TB5mbi-72pBvrd8SmDljPO0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 14 Nov 2019 15:10:09 +0000 Andrew 41873 at http://updates.wri-irg.org Armies, internal security and militarised borders: militarisation in Latin America and the Caribbean https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/armies-internal-security-and-militarised-borders-militarisation-latin-america-and <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41970.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41970" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2019-12/16507411527_b06e92b64a_o.jpg?itok=II5eNo4g 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-12/16507411527_b06e92b64a_o.jpg?itok=4Z9Ekw7l 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-12/16507411527_b06e92b64a_o.jpg?itok=4Z9Ekw7l" alt="Two masked, armoured police officers holding rifles, crouch behind a tree" title="The Honduran TIGRES police training with a US Special Forces group. Credit: USASOC News Service, used under a CC2.0 license" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 29 Nov 2019</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Julián Ovalle - Red Antimilitarista de América Latina y el Caribe</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h1 class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">About Latin America</span></h1> <p class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Because of</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> the confusion of the English-speaking world when it says “America”, and so that there is no doubt over what we will talk about in this article, the Latin American people </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">dwells</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> in the vast territory between the southern United States and the Chilean southern Patagonia, which amounts to almost half of the Americas. </span></p> <p class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Latin Americans are a </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"><i>mestizo</i></span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> ["mixed"] people that continues to mix, and represents to the world something that is unfinished and beautiful. Varied forms of Spanish and Portuguese fragment this unity. A </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"><i>mestizo</i></span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> people that has experienced and recounted the story of the existential tearing apart caused by colonial genocide and which, despite the passing of the centuries and modern discourse about multiculturalism, is still dealing with the derision and dispossession experienced by the original inhabitants. </span></p> <p class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">In line with the Latin American thinker Jesús Martín-Barbero, we </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">c</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">an think of Latin America as a landscape fragmented by mountain ranges, jungles, plains, artificial canals, native languages, national borders, different kinds of Spanish, accents, phenotypes and cuisine. My starting point is to acknowledge the history of Latin American culture as a continuous process, subject to the colonial legacy, and which is experiencing a modernity that is more heterogeneous than universal. The modernity of Latin America resides in the particularity of the plural, in a constant crisis of national identity(s) motivated and facilitated by mobility across borders and recently by the transnational issue. It is a fragmented territory where difference coexists closely and inevitably.</span></p> <hr /> <p>Acknowledging Latin America as a region means looking at a fragmented landscape. Before outlining a general context of the militarisation of the region, it is important to point out that addressing the region as a whole means accepting the profound differences between each of the countries that constitute it. However, a common denominator among all the countries of the region is the stamp of violence, an extremely complex phenomenon that does not allow for simple or absolute explanations, but which undoubtedly has a close genealogical relationship with the colonial legacy that was imprinted on those peoples and territories as a result of the bloody homogenising enterprise that sought to make the "American world" disappear and reduced it to the pre-Hispanic.</p> <p>The history of Latin America is the experience of a deep and permanent social conflict that has been related to what Martín-Barbero calls “national identity crisis rhetoric” and which Rosanna Reguillo in turn relates, among other factors, to the “intense migratory flow in Latin America, which was motivated by the horror of dictatorships and the systematic destruction of peoples and dreams” (2005).</p> <p>As a starting point I want to highlight the fact that the history of Latin America in the twentieth century describes a chronic and permanent situation of cultural conflict traceable to its colonial legacy, a socio-political dispute between governments and peoples that collide in the framework of democracies. Our democracies are always subject to inter-, multi-, and trans- national policies, that value the strategy of militarisation as a “legitimate” and effective strategy not just for conflict management, but also as a form of axiological foundation of culture: the ascendancy of violent, patriarchal values. However, Latin America is a land of resistance of indomitable people, men and women who embody resistance: indigenous peoples, peasants, Afro-descendants, empowered women, urban youth, professionals, boys and girls and academics.</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="A still taken from the television, showing a young child wearing khaki uniform and carrying a toy gun on a a parade" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_full" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ab609f1a-a474-48e5-974f-fd7622c20140" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/latam_militarizacion_fusil_roto_oct_2019_relectura_y_ajustes_observaciones.png?itok=cgcxbw-R 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/latam_militarizacion_fusil_roto_oct_2019_relectura_y_ajustes_observaciones.png?itok=cgcxbw-R" alt="A still taken from the television, showing a young child wearing khaki uniform and carrying a toy gun on a a parade" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p>This still was taken from the broadcast of one of the most popular news programmes on Colombian television. The phrase "COLOMBIANOS ACOMPAÑARON EL DESFILE (COLOMBIANS JOINED IN THE PARADE)" refers to the military parade that takes place on the 20th July in Colombia every year, to commemorate independence from the Spanish crown. This image helps us to highlight and perhaps to distinguish conceptually between <strong>militarisation</strong> and <strong>militarism</strong>: <strong>militarisation</strong> is expressed through the presence of soldiers and military devices in a military parade in urban territory, which in this case are implicit in the image. <strong>Militarism</strong> is expressed in this image in the uniformed and armed person of a child, militarism is inferred through the cultural context that resulted in the decision of his parents to dress him up as a little soldier and expose him to the public. Without the intention of making a rigorous conceptualisation, but with the intention of making a distinction, it is enough to say that while militarisation is the visible disposition of military devices (laws, soldiers, technology) militarism is the cultural basis that underlies and sustains it.</p> <p>This article is concerned with presenting a context of militarisation in the Latin American region, of what is visible and quantifiable in some, not all, countries in the region.</p> <h1>United States Backyard</h1> <p>More and more civil institutions and territories are being militarised in the region. Since the twentieth century, the United States has justified its intervention in Latin American countries by arguing that they face challenges of governance, corruption and high levels of violence that smooth the path towards illegal activities (drug trafficking), migration to the USA and instability throughout America. In the current context the security perspective is the axis that shapes government policies. The global process of securitisation (the prioritisation of security policies in the face of threats over welfare policies) in Latin America is seen as a state response to the breakdown of state hegemony in the territorial and symbolic sphere, represented by the entry into the regional scene (and the strengthening) of “non-equivalent forces” such as terrorism, drug trafficking and organised crime. This commitment to securitisation is the contemporary scenario where it is the expansion of the United States military intervention in the region that drives the militarisation of organisations and territories.</p> <p>The fact that the Latin American homicide rate represents 33% of the global rate is a painfully clear indicator of how social conflict escalates to brutal violence, but in turn constitutes a fact that has been useful in justifying the military intervention of the United States. Rebecca Bill Chávez, who was the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Western Hemisphere Affairs of the United States Government and who publicises issues through her column in the New York Times, is a journalistic spokeswoman who reports that Latin America represents 8% of the world's population and 33% of the world's homicides take place in the region; that is, a rate of 21.5 homicides per 100,000 citizens, which is equivalent to three times the world average of 8. The homicide rate in Brazil reached a record in 2018 of 31 per 100,000 inhabitants; for its part Colombia has a rate of 27 per 100,000 inhabitants. Although Argentina has a much lower homicide rate, less than seven per 100,000, 27% of Argentinians claim to have been victims of a crime in the last year. These kinds of incidents and the difficulties of governance in the countries of the region are what have justified the political and military intervention of the United States in the region.</p> <p>Political and military intervention has been a constant in the second half of the twentieth century. From the "Alliance for Progress" - a programme of economic, political and social assistance by the US in Latin America in the 60s, to the "Plan Colombia" between 2001 and 2016, in which the United States invested $10bn in Colombia in military aid, to the “Mérida Initiative” (2008-2014), an international security treaty established by the United States in agreement with Mexico and the countries of Central America to combat drug trafficking and organised crime , these plans and other bilateral agreements with various governments have left a history of a formal presence with US military bases throughout the region. The official US military presence in the region is decreasing; currently the official presence of US military forces is concentrated in strategic points of the Pacific and Caribbean coasts, in El Salvador (Comalpa), Cuba (Guantanamo), Aruba, Curação and Puerto Rico, while a negotiation is taking place with the Bolsonaro Government on the establishment of military bases in Brazil. However, according to Colombian researcher Sebastián Bitar (2017) there is currently evidence of a growing network of informal facilities that supports US operations in the region. The host countries allow, and in some cases seek, participation in a network of “quasi-bases”; installations that, without an official agreement with the national institutions in the host countries, permit the US military presence and operations. They exist in almost all the countries of the Pacific coast of America: Peru, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador and Colombia.</p> <h1>Militarisation of the region</h1> <p>The context of securitisation, as previously mentioned, in Latin America is a response to the perceived threat that the rhetoric of governments bases on the fight against crime and drug trafficking. In the case of the countries of Central America, US intervention and securitisationhas, according to a regional report produced by the Ombudsman's Office of Costa Rica, "opened the door to militarisation for the sake of citizen security.".</p> <p>In general terms, Central American countries have seen an increase in military budgets without this having an impact on an improvement in the state of internal security: El Salvador increased its budget from $191 million in 2008 to $271 million in 2016, while homicides increased from 2,594 cases in 2012 to 6,656 in 2015 to 5,280 in 2016. In Honduras, despite a growing military presence on the streets, murders were not significantly reduced; according to the Violence Observatory of the National Autonomous University of Honduras, the budget of the armed forces in that country went from $2.2 billion in 2008, to 342 million dollars in 2016; In spite of that, murders only dropped from 5,265 in 2009 and 6,239 in 2010, to 5,148 in 2015 and 5,150 in 2016.</p> <p>Throughout 2018, the Government of Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua carried out a military crackdown in urban centres with the aim of exercising territorial control through the repression of a population that protested in the streets because of the increase in the cost of living, acts of corruption in government and actions against freedom of expression. In its analysis of the Central American region, the report of the Ombudsman's Office of Costa Rica<a href="http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/mundo/centroamerica-y-su-fallida-militarizacion"> </a><a href="http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/mundo/centroamerica-y-su-fallida-militarizacion">points out</a> that the “revitalisation of the armed forces and their increasing participation in civil activities, coupled with the chronic weakness of the system of administration of justice and the detection of new and serious cases of corruption in several countries, pose risks for the democratic exercise of power”. The report pointed out that the increase in the size and capacity of armies "may affect the effective protection of human rights."</p> <p>Continuing this path through Latin America to the south, however, may be the opportunity to point out emphatically that in Central America there is a war against the people that is invisible. The phenomenon of militarisation is widespread in Latin America. At present, a trend has been identified in the region in which governments are increasingly handing over police functions to the army. The Governments of Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Colombia have resorted, to a greater or lesser extent, to their armed forces in search of internal security.</p> <p><a name="story-continues-3" id="story-continues-3"></a>In Brazil, President Michel Temer signed a decree in February 2018 that put the army in charge of the security of Rio de Janeiro, stating "you know that organised crime has nearly taken over in the state of Rio Janeiro. This is a metastasis that is spreading in our country and threatens our people." In the media this action has been recorded as an extraordinary measure that seeks to restore order in the second largest city in the country and, in general, in the state of Rio in the midst of an epidemic of violence. It is the first time, since the return to democratic rule, that a government in Brazil has ordered a military intervention in a State. With the advent of Bolsonaro militarisation is continuing. Although the total number of violent deaths in the State has increased, surveys indicate that a large majority of the inhabitants of Rio support military intervention.</p> <p><a href="">For his part, Mauricio Macri, as President of the Government in Argentina has made a regulatory change to the functions of the military: he has said</a> that it is important that they “can co-operate with internal security, mainly providing logistical support in border areas and participating in activities of a strategic nature.” The regulatory change he proposes is due to an absence of a strong political consensus in Argentina since democracy returned after more than thirty years of dictatorship: he announced a reform to the Argentine Armed Forces aimed at the army addressing "current challenges" and referring to the threats of terrorism and drug trafficking, but this reform will also allow military intervention in internal security.</p> <p>In the case of Colombia, the strengthening of the military establishment does not seem to be stopping despite the peace agreements drawn up with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The continuation of the conflict is in the midst of a breach in the agreements and in the midst of a resumption of arms by dissident sectors of the FARC guerrillas, a rearmament that is taking place in the context of a resurgence of selective paramilitary violence against community leaders and where there is not a glimpse of a negotiated solution with armed actors such as the National Liberation Army (ELN), People’s Liberation Army (EPL) and FARC members who have refused to move forward with the mobilisation process motivated by the lack of guarantees for their safety and compliance with the implementation of the agreements.</p> <p>The Law of Internal Security was passed in Mexico in 2017. This has created the conditions for an increased dependency on the armed forces for internal security, at the same time as bringing about an integration of the armed forces into a National Guard. Mexico’s National Human Rights Commission notes that "When the Army has been deployed on operations in a municipality homicides increase by 9%", this clearly shows that militarisation endangers the protection of human rights and can actually exacerbate citizen insecurity... In the book In the Fog of War (2015) Andreas Schedler notes that "the annual murder rate in the country has again exceeded the threshold for endemic violence as defined by the World Health Organization by more than double." In this context, the legislative branch has approved the Law of Internal Security that regulates the presence of the Army and Navy on the streets, as if they were police forces. Since the presentation and before the approval of the Law, more than 750,000 members of the Army and Navy <a href="https://elpais.com/internacional/2017/12/15/mexico/1513305281_940878.html">have replaced the police in hundreds of municipalities throughout the country</a>. Based on this new regulatory framework, the National Guard has begun operations in 2019 on the southern border of the country where it has been intensifying efforts to curb the flow of migration to the United States, and has specifically deployed more than 20,000 troops to work together with the National Institute of Migration, in line with a demand by Donald Trump.</p> <p>The new neo-liberal right-wing government in Chile has strengthened the militarisation of its police, the Carabineros, essentially a military police force. The commitment, in this case is technological and judicial: new weapons and armoured transport, investment in programmes of virtual espionage and carte blanche repression of any kind of social protest throughout the country, particularly the Mapuche people and the environmental disputes caused by large-scale toxic pollution in the coastal areas of the country.</p> <p>In Venezuela, despite the economic embargo and a diplomatic blockade by the right-wing governments of the region, the militarisation of the state has intensified since Hugo Chavez was in power, of the last 15 Interior Ministers, twelve (80%) have been military officials. The current government of Nicolás Maduro is based essentially on the power that the military provides for him and that counters the coup attempts of the opposition.</p> <h1>Border militarisation</h1> <p>The cross-border transit areas of peoples in continuous migration through ancestral territories, which existed before the Nation States, remain militarised. In the Amazon, the largest planetary reserve of fresh water, in November 2017, the <a href="">Initiative, Amazon Log 2017,</a> took place. This was an exercise in military coordination in the tri-border region between Colombia, Peru and Brazil involving the participation of the armies of the countries of the area.</p> <p>In Central America, borders are migratory filters to stop migration to the United States. Those who manage to reach the Mexico/United States border meet heavily armed soldiers playing the role of the wall they have yet to build but have already constructed militarily. After the announcement of the controversial wall on the border with Mexico, in 2018 the Donald Trump government signed a proclamation announcing the mobilisation of troops from the National Guard to the border with Mexico to combat illegal immigration. In this regard, Trump<a href=""> pointed out</a> that “the lawlessness that continues at our southern border is fundamentally incompatible with the safety, security and sovereignty of the American people,” therefore 600,000 troops from the National Guard were mobilised as an initial measure in compliance with the government order.</p> <p>Venezuela is becoming more and more militarised every year, ceding participation to its armed forces in the economy, security, intelligence and generally in all areas of decision and administratio. This militarisation eliminates the possibility of a civil, negotiated solution to the permanent state of crisis that the country has been experiencing for five years now. One of the regional consequences of this crisis is the significant increase in Venezuelan economic and political migration, which has been responded to by the region from a position of poverty and solidarity, although local right wing movements have taken the opportunity to popularise xenophobic, racist and discriminatory responses, both social and administrative.</p> <p>In Venezuela, obtaining a passport presents serious obstacles. The cost has increased by 124%, and applicants face delay and corruption in the processing system. These complications are increased by restrictions that other Andean countries are<a href=""> introducing</a>: “A restriction by Peru for Venezuelan immigrants came into force hours after the Court of Justice in Ecuador suspended the same measure in the neighbouring country and gave the Ecuadorian Government a 45-day deadline to present a contingency plan if it wanted to continue applying the measure." In Colombia sectors of the extreme right are putting forward <a href="https://www.efe.com/efe/espana/sociedad/peru-comienza-a-exigir-pasaporte-los-venezolanos-que-llegan-su-frontera/10004-3729527">arguments </a>about why an intervention should be made in Venezuela. This, while they are making their debut as an extraordinary partner of NATO.</p> <p>Furthermore, the historic and permanent strengthening of the military apparatus and the approach of preparing armies to be responsible for, or at least active in, internal security, and the ongoing militarisation of borders creates an apparent tension with the perspectives posed by the strengthening and financing of the police. The deployment of troops by Brazil to the border with Venezuela after the xenophobic outbreaks is an example of this.</p> <hr /> <p>The Latin American region is experiencing a period of an intensification of regional militarisation.The effects - including the normalisation of violence, arms trafficking, armed gangs disputing and dividing territories with the police, who are militarised in turn by the formation of armed special police groups (such as the "Lynx" in Paraguay) are being felt by local communities across the region. The region lives in an endless spiral of lethal violence, and the military and the police are a constituent element and not the solution.</p> <p>  </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_31 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/242" hreflang="en">Honduras</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/144" hreflang="en">Mexico</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/204" hreflang="en">El Salvador</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/220" hreflang="en">Cuba</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/what-militarisation-policing" hreflang="en">What is the militarisation of policing?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41970&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="1MMPy3NxHi6q56ssDEGBYH-joW91uKukPkW5uUNNfT0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 29 Nov 2019 10:47:28 +0000 Andrew 41970 at http://updates.wri-irg.org Different Motivations in the Latin American Movement: Rafa's anarchist perspective https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/cobook-online/different-motivations-in-latin-america <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--25180.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="25180" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 18 Nov 2015</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Return to <a href="/cobook-online">Conscientious Objection: A Practical Companion for Movements</a></h3> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;"><em>Rafael Uzcategui is a Venezuelan conscientious objector, author, and human rights activist who has been active with War Resisters' International, and in antimilitarism more generally, for many years. Here, he summarises the main tendencies of the Latin American conscientious objection movement, and details how his own nonviolent anarchist position fits into this picture.</em></p> <p>During the eighties, many Latin American countries were living under military dictatorships or suffering the consequences of civil war. These were also the days of the Cold War, during which the US considered Latin America one of its 'zones of influence': almost like a back garden. The traumatic and progressive democratisation process meant that broad swathes of the continent's youth developed an antimilitarist sentiment, which began to take on an organised and political dimension. As an adolescent at the beginning of the nineties in Barquisimeto, a town 5 hours away from the Venezuelan capital of Caracas, my peers and I had to hide ourselves twice a year for fifteen days, to avoid compulsory military service. Otherwise they would seize us on the streets and, without wasting words, force us into a truck, with others just as terrified, and from there take us to the barracks. For many of us, these forced recruitment raids or 'press gangs' were the starting point for our rejection of authority and of the military uniform.<span style="font-family: Arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="background: transparent;"></span></span></span></p> <!--break--><p></p> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;">It was a religious initiative, SERPAJ (the Peace and Justice Service), founded in 1974 in Colombia, which was responsible in many Latin American countries for promoting values such as active nonviolence, a culture of peace, and the idea of conscientious objection as a right which ought to and could be demanded of the authorities. Many of the initiative's offices, for example those in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile and Argentina, were the driving force behind the establishment of local conscientious objection movements, but it was in Paraguay that the initiative made the most significant advances: in 1992, the members of this branch managed to ensure that the Paraguayan constitution should formally recognise conscientious objection in one of its articles. The next year, the first Paraguayan conscientious objectors declared themselves as such, gaining media attention and managing to disseminate their message.</p> <p> </p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_full" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4fe14d8b-28a7-4acc-9c9a-0095fd2893a6" peace="" title="" to="" yes="" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/images/Foto-SERPAJ-Ecuador-4-300x225-615x461.home.jpg?itok=_8SXtk6c 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/images/Foto-SERPAJ-Ecuador-4-300x225-615x461.home.jpg?itok=_8SXtk6c" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p style="text-align: left;"><span><span style="font-family: Arial,sans-serif;">In </span></span>1994, the first Latin American meeting on conscientious objection took place in La Asuncion, and the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Conscientious Objection was established, which, even before the days of the internet, managed to coordinate activities in several countries and edit the magazine 'Objecting'. The network's different groups enhanced the subject matter with which it dealt to cover a broader critique of militarism, such that with time, the network became the Latin American Coordination of Conscientious Objection, which existed until 2004. There are several reasons for its decline thereafter. The first is that many countries, across the continent, banned forced military recruitment raids or 'press gangs', which were the primary target against which activists had mobilised. They also allowed for conscientious objection in various laws. The autonomy the network wanted to maintain from NGOs also left it with few economic resources for carrying out campaigns and organising meetings. Since 2005, War Resisters' International (WRI) has attempted, with relative success, to promote an antimilitarist network in Latin America, calling for meetings, joint declarations, and trainings for nonviolent direct action.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;">Three main tendencies developed within the Latin American conscientious objection movement: the religious tendency, the anti-imperialist tendency, and the anarchist tendency. SERPAJ and various NGOs represent the first, which forms part of a plethora of initiatives which fall under the rubric of 'liberation theology' and in which the objection is based on the commandment 'thou shalt not kill'. The anti-imperialist tendency was formed of broadly Marxist groups, which refused compulsory military service for tactical reasons, but supported the notion of a 'popular army' as much as they supported the national liberation struggles of the guerrillas. These groups were particularly active in denouncing the presence of North American military bases and the North American military school which trained a majority of Latin American top military brass (the higher ranks of Latin American militaries). The third tendency, with fewer adherents but an integral analysis of militarism and its consequences, were the anarchists, who rejected the proposition of an alternative civilian service to the state, but who were prepared to enter local coalitions which confronted concrete manifestations of militarism in every day life. Among the anarchists were to be found the punks, whose bands and fanzines helped disseminate the movement. Women were a minority in all three tendencies, and feminist critiques of the military received little attention. One shortcoming was that, despite the 'opportunity' represented by the separation of mothers from their sons due to compulsory military service, few women took part in the initiatives in their capacity as mothers and grandmothers.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY" style="text-align: left;">The debates between anarchists and anti-imperialists, according to context, were tense within the conscientious objection movement. One bone of contention was the Cuban government. Another was support – or rather, the impediment of criticism, which is also a form of support – for guerrillas such as the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia, Shining Path, and the Sandinist National Liberation Front, as well as the relationship with leftist political parties. In 1994, the emergence of the Zapatistas' National Liberation Army in Mexico brought the debate about the nonviolence/ armed struggle dichotomy to the fore. The anarchists rejected the notion that 'bad' militarism only emanated from the Unites States, in contradistinction to a potentially 'good' militarism of the left. Rather, they affirmed that the army, by its very nature, was a synthesis of negative values which they rejected: obedience to authority, hierarchy, xenophobia, machismo, homophobia, the valorisation of force, etc. It was for this reason that when a militarist 'of the left', Hugo Chavez, took the presidency of Venezuela in 1999 and became a point of reference for Latin American anti-imperialism, communication between anti-imperialists and anarchists became fraught. However, a faction of anarchism in Latin America today questions the peace culture of the conscientious objection movement and advocates 'spontaneous violence' and the 'social warfare' of so called 'insurrectionalism'.</p> <p>In Latin America, antimilitarism as an identity has never had its own development, separate from the three tendencies described above. Participating in a political meeting and describing yourself as an 'antimilitarist' can lead to one of two things: you will either be looked at like an alien from another planet, or you will be met with the prejudice that being a pacifist surely means not believing in anything, not wanting to get your hands dirty or having to deal with 'problems'. It has never been easy to promote antimilitarism in a continent where the model activist for social change is the patriarchal figure of 'Che' Guevara. After the abolition of compulsory military service in many countries, many thought that antimilitarism had already achieved its objectives, however the integral critique of what the military represents, as a weapon of domination, should continue to have currency in movements for social change today.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><em>Translated from Spanish by Elisa Haf</em></p> <h3>Go to next chapter: <a href="/cobook-online/richards-story">Richard's Story</a></h3> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/215" hreflang="en">Ecuador</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/195" hreflang="en">Chile</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/88" hreflang="en">The Americas</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=25180&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="zyfy9TVO_7THUTE2DpBKNdh29cks8Busqo_HJO0YaxA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 18 Nov 2015 14:15:20 +0000 HBrock 25180 at http://updates.wri-irg.org War Profiteer of the Month: Citigroup https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2008/war-profiteer-month-citigroup <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--6286.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="6286" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 24 Dec 2008</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_full" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="728c80aa-ebe6-41ad-b3c9-9ca3a5d4461d" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/images/citi.thumbnail.jpeg?itok=-JNff5Xo 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/images/citi.thumbnail.jpeg?itok=-JNff5Xo" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> Citigroup, operating as Citi, is a major financial services company based in New York City. Formed by the 1998 merger of Citicorp and Travelers Group, the company employs 332,000 people around the world and holds over 200 million customer accounts in more than 100 countries.<br /> Citi was implicated in various financial scandals of the early 2000s, including Enron and WorldCom. More recently, it has suffered massive losses from subprime mortgage securities and had to turn to sources such as the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority and the government of Singapore for $20 billion in capital infusions.<br /> The history of the company is, thus, divided into the workings of several firms that over time amalgamated into Citicorp, a multinational banking corporation operating in more than 100 countries; or Travelers Group, whose businesses covered credit services, consumer finance, brokerage, and insurance. As such, the company history dates back to the founding of: the City Bank of New York (later Citibank) in 1812; Bank Handlowy in 1870; Smith Barney in 1873, Banamex in 1884; Salomon Brothers in 1910.</p> <h3>Corporate accountability</h3> <p>The number of corporate crimes that Citigroup has been involved in, is extremely long. Here we only highlight a few of them.</p> <p><strong>Phony foreign exchange trades and loans</strong></p> <p>Between 1973 and 1980, Citibank shifted about $58 million in profits from high-tax to no-tax jurisdictions through phony foreign exchange trades and loans. These foreign exchange operations were known as "parking."<br /> Exchange law controls aim to prevent excessive "shorting" of currencies. To short a stock or a currency is to sell it when you don’t have it. If a trader thinks the Swiss franc is going down, he will sell it. He doesn't have to have it to sell it. Governments believed that people who shorted their currency would drive down its price. Therefore, many countries established limits for how large a position in their currency a bank could have. To avoid the limit, Citibank traders put their "positions" offshore.</p> <p><strong>Money laundering in Chile</strong></p> <p>In October 2004, Chile's tax authorities filed a lawsuit for tax evasion against former military dictator Augusto Pinochet. One of his tax-evasion money-laundering banks was Citibank, which hid and laundered at least $5 million and perhaps millions more, according to the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations.</p> <p><strong>Apartheid</strong></p> <p>Citicorp, through its Citibank subsidiaries, was the largest U.S. lender to South Africa during the Apartheid, with $800 million in loans to that country. This figure represented a quarter of the total $3.2 billion in current U.S. loans to South Africa. Citicorp's South Africa related lending policy was that of providing loans to both the public and private sector. Until 1985, Citicorp's official South Africa lending policy continued to allow loans to both private and public sector borrowers. But as a result of intensified pressure from anti-apartheid forces in the U.S., as well as new Federal restrictions on bank lending to South Africa, Citicorp was forced to end all loans to the public sector in 1985.</p> <p><strong>Deregulation and the Enron Scandal</strong></p> <p>In the 1990s, the venerable old Glass-Steagall Act -- the act established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and included banking reforms, designed to control speculation -- came under sustained attack by Citi and other big financial interests who promised great efficiencies would come from the kinds of consolidation that the law specifically prohibited. By 1997, the Act had been weakened enough to allow banks to acquire securities firms outright. By 1999, thanks to a lobbying effort led by Citibank and others, Glass-Steagall was essentially history. At long last, investment banking, insurance, and financial underwriting were back under the same umbrella again.</p> <p>With the law’s repeal, J.P. Morgan Chase &amp; Co. and Citigroup, Citicorp’s successor, were free to both lend money and underwrite securities for Enron, WorldCom and others. Citigroup, for instance, was paid a total of $167 million by Enron for various services from 1997 to 2001. Citigroup and J.P. Morgan Chase repeatedly issued Enron huge loans that were disguised as energy trades --which then enabled Enron to misstate the loan proceeds as cash flow from business operations, misleading investors, analysts, tax collectors, and employees who lost their life savings and jobs--. As Sen. Carl Levin (D-Mich.) testified in one of the many congressional investigations of Enron, this one leading to a major investigative report on "The Role of the Financial Institutions in Enron's Collapse" (click here for volume 1; and volume 2): “Citigroup and Chase…not only assisted Enron, they developed the deceptive pre-pays as a financial product and sold it to other companies as so-called balance sheet-friendly financing, earning millions of fees for themselves in the process.” Meanwhile, even though these banks knew just how shaky Enron’s finances really were, they happily pushed investors to buy more Enron stock through their brokerage arms. Certainly, they issued no warnings, not even to credit agencies.</p> <p><strong>Iraq occupation</strong></p> <p>Citigroup was one of the most active financial institutions involved in the re-shaping of Iraq' economy particularly at the early stages of the occupation. During this period Citigroup was offering substantial loans to private enterprises guaranteed against future sales of Iraqui oil.</p> <p>Citigrup had an influential position with the Iraq Panel of experts who were supposed to come with a solution for Iraq. The ten member panel -- aided by issue-specific sub-groups comprised of 44 experts from academia, government, and the private sector -- advised a "redeployment" and "transition from a combat role to a support role" for U.S. military forces in Iraq. The advisors to the panel - as opposed to panel members themselves - include representatives of Bechtel, Citigroup, the American Enterprise Institute, the Heritage Foundation, and the Hudson Institute.</p> <p><strong>EADS</strong></p> <p>In July 2005 Citibank participated for a sum of € 145 million in a revolving credit of € 3 billion for EADS, EADS was the War Profiteer of the Month No 8 and No 15.</p> <p><strong>2008 Bailout Details</strong></p> <p>US Treasury and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) agreed to back $306 billion of residential and commercial loans and securities on Citigroup's balance sheet. In exchange, Citigroup agreed to issue preferred shares to the Treasury and FDIC. Treasury also agreed to invest $20 billion in Citigroup from the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in exchange for preferred stock with an 8% dividend to the Treasury. The day before the announced agreement the company's stock was trading at $3.77 -- a price that represents a total loss of $244 billion in value in just two years.<br /> Citigroup also agreed to comply with executive compensation restrictions, and the FDIC's mortgage modification program. Citi simultaneously announced that it would cut 52,000 jobs.</p> <p>The bailout was a big profiteer opportunity for these financial institutions and their shareholders and noted by Naomi Klein in her article "The Bailout Profiteers":"this is what U.S. taxpayers received: no controlling interest, no voting rights, no seats on the bank boards and just five percent in dividend payouts to the government, while shareholders continue to collect billions in dividends every quarter. What's more, golden parachutes and bonuses already promised by the banks will still be paid out to executives — all before taxpayers are paid back.".</p> <p>For more information on Citigroup:</p> <p>- <a href="http://www.citigroup.com">http://www.citigroup.com</a><br /> - <a href="http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/citigroup">http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/citigroup</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/8" hreflang="en">Nonviolence</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/216" hreflang="en">United States of America</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/195" hreflang="en">Chile</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/125" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/230" hreflang="en">South Africa</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/63" hreflang="en">arms trade</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/418" hreflang="en">Citigroup</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6286&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="TfRZvX01bST0-N3H2dQCmfAhdnlL-Bb5XkAwZmlReeo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 24 Dec 2008 12:29:43 +0000 javier 6286 at http://updates.wri-irg.org Adolfo Pérez, premio Nobel de la Paz, denuncia entrenamiento militar de niños en Argentina https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2001/adolfo-perez-premio-nobel-de-la-paz-denuncia-entrenamiento-militar-de-ninos-en-argentina <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--2331.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="2331" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Oct 2001</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Se pedirá protección a la UNICEF, dice el Nobel de la Paz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel dado que niños pobres reciben ayuda a cambio de instrucción militar, denuncian en Argentina. Padres de los menores dicen que les enseñan a espiar costumbres de familiares y vecinos.</p> <address>La Jornada, por Stella Calloni, corresponsal 8 de agosto 2001</address> <p>Buenos Aires, 7 de agosto. El premio Nobel de la Paz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel dijo hoy que el Servicio de Paz y Justicia local realizará una presentación ante la Organización de Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) con el objetivo de pedir protección para los niños de familias pobres que reciben instrucción policial y militarizada, tanto de parte de policías en la provincia de Jujuy, como de la Gendarmería en otros lugares de Argentina. El hecho saltó a luz por una denuncia del mismo Pérez Esquivel hace casi dos semanas, luego de que viajó a Jujuy, para asistir a la conmemoración de los 25 años de la llamada trágica "noche del apagón" en la ciudad de Ledesma, donde cientos de personas fueron secuestradas por las autoridades de la dictadura en el lugar y varias de ellas fueron desaparecidas.</p> <p>"El terror sigue hasta hoy en día, porque toda la gente depende de las empresas locales y gobiernos feudales y hay un mundo secreto que se mueve en todas estas zonas, como en Salta, donde nadie parece tener control de lo que hacen las fuerzas de seguridad locales y las extranjeras de distintas oficinas que transcurren por el lugar", dijo Pérez Esquivel a La Jornada. El impacto de la noticia y las fotografías publicadas en un reportaje sobre el tema en el diario Página/12 sobre los niños de Jujuy esta semana, llevó la preocupación hasta la Secretaría de Derechos Humanos del gobierno, donde al parecer se ignoraba que existen no sólo 17 Agrupaciones Policiales Infantiles (API) en esa provincia, sino que hay más de 60 que están bajo instrucción de la Gendarmería, donde ya han cursado, desde 1976, más de 170 mil niños.</p> <p>En este momento son 5 mil 276 los niños que están en la Gendarmería Infantil (GI) en diversas provincias del país. Este día hubo una manifestación de protesta ante El Consejo Nacional de la Niñez, la Adolescencia y la Familia. Estela de Carlotto, de Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo, consideró que se trataba de una "acción perversa y siniestra", mientras el Ministro de Desarrollo Social, Juan Pablo Cafiero, quien ha sido muy crítico de su gobierno, dijo que "dar ropa y comida a cambio de adoctrinamiento es una extorsión terrible", y no dudó en afirmar que esta militarización de los niños está montada sobre la necesidad de las familias indigentes desesperadas, "y detrás de ésto se esconde el verdadero objetivo: el control social".</p> <p>En documentos oficiales filtrados a La Jornada, se observa que la llamada Gendarmería Infantil (GI) es de vieja data. "Las primeras agrupaciones surgen de un proyecto generado en Formosa en 1976, y tuvieron asiento en los Escuadrones de Construcciones Civiles; Escuadron 134 en Las Palmas septiembre de 1977) y el Escuadrón Oran (Salta) en noviembre de 1977". Se confirma que en este año existen los GI en la mayoría de las provincias pobres y estratégicas tanto del noroeste, el sur y el noreste del país y suman 65.</p> <p>"La edades de los GI abarcan desde los 8 hasta los 14 años, respondiendo a un plan de permanencia establecido, para lo cual existen distintas categorías: aspirante (8 años), patrullero (entre 9 y 11 años), baqueano (entre los 12 y los 14 años)". A los 15 años abandonan las filas del GI, y los que sobresalen quedan como guias hasta los 17 años, o bien como instructores desde los 18, según un informe de Gendarmería. "Es de destacar que desde la creación de la GI han sido formados más de 170 mil niños, algunos de los cuales actualmente forman parte de la Gendarmería Nacional Argentina (GNA)".</p> <p>También hay quienes se han enlistado en batallones de reserva.</p> <p>Aunque se dice que las GI o las Agrupaciones Policiales Infantiles(niños de 5 a 16 años) no reciben apoyo económico ni oficial ni privado, como "no tienen presupuesto" las "Jefaturas de unidades" conforman cooperadoras y comisiones de padres, pero además existen "padrinazgos" de una cantidad de empresas importantes.</p> <p>Entre los objetivos de la enseñanza militar a menores, se señala la educación "para respetar a la patria, a la familia" y salvar a estos niños de "la droga o la delincuencia " y en los reglamentos como el Unificador de las Agrupaciones de la Policía Infantil que tiene varios capítulos en el correspondiente a la "conducta del niño", hay establecidos una serie de "castigos" como "imposición de tareas comunitarias, trabajos especiales en la misma agrupación, inhabilitación para participar en desfiles y actos", según el comportamiento. También visten uniformes y se les otorga rango. Padres de los niños enlistados en Jujuy han admitido también que a sus hijos se les enseña a "informar", y que entre estos informes figuran las costumbres de sus familias o vecinos.</p> <p>Pérez Esquivel aseguró que esto es una forma de entrenar a menores para el espionaje. "Eso es control social y, lamentablemente, los padres no pueden decir nada porque están condicionados por el miedo o por su propia situacón de extrema pobreza. Esto esta esta pasando además cuando el gobierno persigue y acusa de extorsión a las familias que protestan por hambre y son millones los desocupados en el país", señaló.</p> <p>El Premio Nobel argentino anunció que él y varios organismos humanitarios comenzarán una investigación sobre este tema.</p> <h2> </h2></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=2331&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="0tjr5x4e0z85burV4051M5WALvE5l7wgd-yWTtoos6k"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sun, 30 Sep 2001 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 2331 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2001/adolfo-perez-premio-nobel-de-la-paz-denuncia-entrenamiento-militar-de-ninos-en-argentina#comments Argentina https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Argentina <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--2067.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="2067" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 14 Apr 1998</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><address>14/04/1998</address> <h3>1 Conscription</h3> <p></p><p><em>conscription not enforced</em> </p><p>Conscription is enshrined in art. 21 of the Argentine constitution which states: "Every Argentine citizen is obliged to bear arms in defence of his country and of this Constitution". Yet, there has been no compulsory military service since 1994. However, in the event of armed conflict or a national emergency, conscription may be re-introduced. The 5 January 1995 Law on Voluntary Military Service (Law no. 24.429 <em>Servicio Militar Voluntario</em>) regulates military service. According to this law, military service is performed by volunteers. But, if insufficient volunteers present themselves for enlistment in the armed forces, art. 19 of Law 24.429 allows the government to introduce compulsory military service. Such decision must be approved by the National Congress. In that case 18-year-old men may be called up for up to a year's military service under the terms set out by the previous Law 17.531 on Compulsory Military Service. [6] [8] [11] </p><p><em>recruitment</em> </p><p>All men and women aged 18 to 24 may volunteer for performing military service. [3]<br /> </p><h3>2 Conscientious objection</h3> <p></p><p><em>legal right</em> </p><p>In case the government decides to introduce conscription, all conscripts have a right to conscientious objection. Art. 20 of Law 24.429 states that individuals who, for "profound religious, philosophical, or moral reasons," are unable to perform their compulsory military service will be required to perform a substitute social service. This may be performed in such areas as public health and environmental projects, but in wartime it must consist of activities to do with civil protection and defence. [4] [6] </p><p><em>procedure and practice</em> </p><p>How this right is exercised in practice is not known, as from 1995 onwards conscription has not been enforced. </p><p>It is neither clear whether those serving voluntarily are entitled to be released from the armed forces should they become COs.<br /> </p><h3>3 Draft evasion and desertion</h3> <p></p><p><em>penalties</em></p> <p>Deserters are tried by military courts, but the punishment for desertion is not known. When desertion is regarded as treason, the Code of Military Justice permits the death sentence. </p><p><em>practice</em> </p><p>From 1987 on all military court verdicts have had to be reviewed by the civilian federal court of appeals. [9] </p><p>When the 1995 Law on Voluntary Military Service was passed, all deserters and draft evaders were amnestied. [3]<br /> </p><h3>5 History</h3> <p>Up to 1995 there was compulsory military service. Young men were registered as conscripts when they were 17 and were called up to perform military service at 18. In the years before 1995 only 10 percent of conscripts actually served. Approximately 90 percent were exempted - either by lot, or because of physical disability or by paying a sum of money. [5] </p><p>President Menem decided to abolish compulsory military service on 13 June 1994 and the Law on Voluntary Military Service was passed in January 1995. This surprisingly swift achievement of abolition was partly due to the public backlash over the beating to death of Omar Carrasco, a young army recruit, on 6 March 1994. Although there had been many cases of conscripts suffering human rights violations, this time the family denounced the incident and received enormous public support over their demand for justice. Two conscripts, a sergeant and one lieutenant, accused to have participated in the death of Carrasco, are in jail but all claim they are not guilty. A trial is going on to judge those who tried to cover up the case, but sofar no military has been found guilty. [2] [10] </p><p>Before the 1995 law was passed there was no legal provision for conscientious objection. Refusal to perform military service was punishable by up to four years' imprisonment. Several Jehovah's Witnesses have served three to four year prison sentences in the Campo the Mayo, the largest military base in Argentine. In the past COs have also been sentenced to perform a year's non-combatant service in the armed forces. </p><p>Ever since 1984, following the Falkland/Malvinas War, FOSMO (<em>Frente Opositor al Servicio Militar Obligatorio</em> - Front Opposing Compulsory Military Service) has campaigned both for the right to conscientious objection and for the abolition of compulsory military service. [1] [5] [7]<br /> </p><h3>6 Annual statistics</h3> <p></p><p>The armed forces comprise 73,000 troops, which is about 0.21 percent of the population. There is a 375,000 strong reserve force. [12] </p><p>In the final years of conscription only some 16,000 conscripts served annually, that is 10 percent of the total number of conscripts. But when conscription was abolished, the military said they required 26,500 volunteers. In 1994 there were more than 200 COs. [3]<br /> </p><h3>Sources</h3> <p></p><p class="small"> [1] Amnesty International 1991. Conscientious objection to military service. AI, London, UK. [2] Wandelaer, Juan de 1994. Letter to WRI-office 16 June 1994 [3] Wandelaer, Juan de 1994. Argentina: voluntary military service? Letter to Peace News, 30 August 1994. [4] Boletin Official No. 28.057, 10 January 1995. Ley No. 24.429 Servicio Militar Voluntario. [5] ROLC 1994. Informe del taller de formacion para la objecion de consciencia i encuentro latinoamericano de objecion de consciencia. Serpaj, Asuncion, Paraguay. [6] Toney, R.J. 1996. Military Service, Alternative Social Service, and Conscientious Objection in the Americas: A Brief Survey of Selected Countries. NISBCO, Washington DC, USA. [7] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1991. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1989/59. United Nations, Geneva. [8] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1997. The question of conscientious objection to military service, report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/83. United Nations, Geneva. [9] Amnesty International 1989. When The State Kills... The Death Penalty: A Human Rights Issue. AI, USA, New York. [10] US State Department 1995. Human rights practices for the year 1994. Country reports. USA, New York. [11] Wandelaer, Juan de 1997. Corrections to the draft report. Acci--n Directa No-violenta, Buenos Aires, Argentine. [12] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London, UK.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=2067&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="h3IvfOx2xOQaoEF8H3IihQb5ZMxI4N59ACFzPoXoT60"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 13 Apr 1998 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 2067 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Argentina#comments News https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/1995/news-1 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--3784.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="3784" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Oct 1995</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Women in Argentina's Military</h3> <p> Women, formerly banned from Argentine's military, are now being accepted as volunteers. The move came last year after mandatory conscription for men was abolished. Conscription ended because of public outrage over the death of a conscript after being beaten by his superiors. Over 5,000 women have applied to join the military, only ten percent of whom have been accepted into the Army, for communications, administrative and medical work. Three hundred women are now serving their first one-year term. Competition for the few jobs open to women is fierce. There are 82 openings for women in electronic operations for the 601 Communications Group Battalion (located in City Bell, 60 kilometers outside Buenos Aires). This is the only battalion so far opened to women. The Navy and Air Force are refusing to accept women volunteers, claiming there are not enough bathrooms for women. </p><p>Women must be between 18 and 24 years of age, single, in good health and with no criminal record. Most women are volunteering because military service is seen as an adventurous job opportunity."I've been out of work since I finished secondary school and I saw military service as a way of earning an income, at least for a year," said one 19-year old woman, who was rejected for service.</p> <h3><a name="Heading10" id="Heading10">Latin American Women in Austria</a></h3> <p> Lateinamerikanische Exilierte und Emigrierte Frauen in Österreich (LEFO) is an organization of and for Latin American women in Austria. LEFO helps with legal, employment and immigration/asylum questions, provides courses in integration into Austrian society, and fights against discrimination and the traffick in women. Counseling is available and social gatherings, to help women keep in touch with events in Latin America, are regularly organized. LEFO also organizes workshops and operates a library (in Spanish and German). Contact: LEFO, 1050 Vienna, Kettenbrückengasse 15/4, Austria. Tel. 58 11 881 fax 58 11 882. You can also subscribe to the LEFO newsletter "Lefita", or make donations through kontonummer von LEFÖ: Bank Austria No. 68 40 63 605. </p> <h3><a name="Heading11" id="Heading11">In Memoria</a></h3> <p> Bernie Constance Crossland (born January 24, 1907) died on March 21, 1995. She was the last suffragette in Britain. She was seven when she marched in a demonstration for women's right to vote earlier this century. Bernie's mother was Eleanor Higginson, a militant who had chained herself to railings outside Parliament and been on hunger strike in Holloway Prison. Bernie lived long enough to participate in the 1987 opening of the Pankhurst Center in Manchester, a feminist center and archive for suffragette memorabilia. Rest in peace, sister. </p> <h3><a name="Heading12" id="Heading12">Rape Hotline Needs Help</a></h3> <p> The Rape, Abuse &amp; Incest National Network (RAINN) operates the only national hotline for victims of sexual assault in the US. The hotline was founded in July 1994. When victims call the toll-free hotline (800-656-HOPE) they are automatically connected to a trained counselor from the rape crisis center closest to them; presently 599 rape crisis centers nationwide participate with RAINN. The hotline provides callers access to counseling 24 hours a day, from 48 states and the District of Columbia. RAINN has already helped more than 15,000 victims of sexual violence. </p><p>In order to keep the hotline running, US $120,000 is needed. Many calls to RAINN are from children being molested by someone in their household; before RAINN, they were afraid to get help because a call would show up on their phone bill. Donations to RAINN can be sent to: RAINN, 252 Tenth Street NE, Washington, DC 20002, USA. Tel. +1 202 544 1034; fax +1 202 544 1401; email at <a href="mailto:RAINNmail@aol.com">RAINNmail@aol.com</a> RAINN accepts Mastercard, Visa and American Express. Donations are tax deductible in the US, as RAINN is a 501©(3) organization (tax ID number is 52-1886511).</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/womens-wg" hreflang="en">Women&#039;s WG</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/113" hreflang="en">Austria</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/273" hreflang="en">gender and militarism</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3784&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="RELK497zXhKC1TtUY5ShfSVtCvrADvXiWCcy3wynV9Y"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sat, 30 Sep 1995 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 3784 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/1995/news-1#comments Country Profiles https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/1994/country-profiles-0 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--12325.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="12325" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Oct 1994</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h4>Brazil</h4> <p>Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world. Under the military government (1964-1985), Brazil also accumulated the largest foreign debt in the world—US $121 billion. A constitutional process began in 1986, culminating in a new Constitution in 1988. Fernando Collor de Mello was elected President in 1990, the first directly-elected president since 1960.</p> <p>Economy: Gross National Product per capita is $2,540 (to compare, GNP per capita in the US is $20,910). High inflation, with almost half the population living below the poverty line. Main exports are coffee, soymeal, sugar, orange juice, iron ore, steel products, motor vehicles, aircraft.</p> <p>Population: 150.4 million (almost 75 percent live in cities). A little more than half the population is descended from European (mostly Portuguese) and Middle Eastern immigrants; out of perhaps five million indigenous people before the Conquest, approximately 250,000 remain. Almost six percent of the population is descended from African slaves; there is a large minority of Japanese-Brazilians.</p> <p>Languages: Portuguese and many indigenous languages.</p> <p>Life Expectancy: 66 years (to compare, life expectancy in the US is 76 years); in the poverty stricken Northeast and Amazon, 45 years.</p> <p>Infant Mortality: in 1992, one Brazilian child under age five died every two minutes. Almost a quarter of all infant deaths in Latin America are in Brazil. More than half of all child deaths in Brazil take place in the Northeast, where the official under-five mortality rate (116 deaths per 1,000 births) is nearly double the national average.</p> <table summary="infant mortality in selected countries"> <tr> <td colspan="2">Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births 1992)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ireland (lowest in the world)</td> <td>6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>US</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cuba (lowest in Latin America)</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Argentina</td> <td>24</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Brazil</td> <td>65</td> </tr> <tr> <td>India</td> <td>124</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Niger (highest in the world)</td> <td>320</td> </tr> </table> <h4>Bolivia</h4> <p>Dolores de Vargas is a founder of Centro Integral de la Mujer, which organizes self-help groups for poor women. “In Bolivia,” she notes, “we say that poverty has a woman’s face. The lack of education and health care in my country matches Haiti. There is an article in our penal code which states that, if a relative, who lives in the same house with you, is violent towards you, it is only a crime if he causes’ grievous harm’. Rape is not a crime unless the girl is underage. In the rural areas, the girl is usually forced to marry the rapist—it is one way the man can force the girl to marry him. There is, of course, no such thing as marital rape. How can we speak about women’s human rights when a woman does not have enough food or water?” Centro Integral de la Mujer is hoping to start documenting violence against women, and to perhaps start a shelter for battered women.</p> <p>Contact: Centro Integral de 10 Mlljer, Casilla 1302, Tarija. Bolivia. Tel. 0591 66 45818/43032/32036</p> <p>Bolivia has the lowest life expectancy (54 years) in Latin America, and the highest infant mortality rate (l 05 deaths per 1,000 live births). It is considered Latin America’s least developed country. Almost 65 percent of,the people belong to the indigenous nations Aymara or Quechua. The gains made by miners and other workers after the 1952 popular revolution have been undermined by two successive right-wing governments. Women played a crucial role in the fall of Bolivia’s last military dictatorship—it was the hunger strike of four women miners, during Christmas 1982, that inspired massive acts of civil disobedience around the country. The Women’s Platform, founded on March 8,1989, has initiated many programs to improve women’s status—one of the most recent, organized around the slogan “Since I want Others to Respect Me, I Respect Others” , raised public awareness about violence against women and the need for law reform.</p> <p>Many peasants now depend on the cultivation of the coca leaf, and the US war on drugs has made their communities battle grounds. The population is seven million and GNP per capita is $570.</p> <h4>Colombia</h4> <p>Political life in Colombia has been dominated by the rivalry between the country’s Liberal and Conservative parties: during the 195 as, the parties’ power struggle resulted in the deaths of some 250,000 people. Amnesty International believes some 20,000 people have been killed for political reasons since 1986.</p> <p>Ofelia Gomez works with a feminist group in Bogota, Colombia. “In Colombia women suffer violence at home, in the streets and in the media. This is an issue that touches us all. Since the 1980s the Colombian women’s movement has tried to make violence against women visible. In the last few years this has become a topic of public discussion, but in a distorted way. The government has recognized the violence, but only because it effects the family and children, not because it effects women. Since 1991 there has been a movement to form a new Constitution. The national women’s movement made several proposals, such as the free choice of maternity. (We are a Catholic country so we do not talk about abortion). We also proposed an article protecting female heads of households and against discrimination against women. Only the first proposal did not pass. We made a proposal against domestic violence which was brought up by women in Parliament. This didn’t succeed either. We were told it was the only proposal to get laughs when it was discussed.”</p> <h4>Argentina</h4> <p>Argentina, ruled by a small group of land and cattle owners, was one of the ten richest countries in the world in the early 1900s. The last military dictatorship (1976-83) led to brutal human rights abuses and a new word in the international vocabulary: the disappeared. Argentina’s population of 31.9 million people includes the largest British community outside the Commonwealth and the second largest Jewish community in the western hemisphere. Argentina has one of the highest literacy rates in the world. GNP per capita is $2,160.</p> <h4>Paraguay</h4> <p>In 1865, Paraguay fought a war against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay (The War of the Triple Alliance) which reduced Paraguay’s population by half (from 450,000 to 220,000 in 1870). More war was to follow, this time against Paraguay’s own people. General Alfredo Stroessner seized power in 1955 and ruled until 1989, during which time one-quarter of the population emigrated to Brazil and Argentina. Most of the population is mestizo, of both European and Indian background; while Spanish is the official language, most people speak Guarani, an indigenous language. In 1987, fundamentalist US missionaries from the New Tribes Mission were responsible for the deaths of five Ayoreo Indians. Violent evictions of Indian communities from their lands are common, as are conflicts between landless peasants and owners of large plantations. There are over four million people in Paraguay. The GNP is $1,030 per capita.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/183" hreflang="en">Bolivia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/99" hreflang="en">Brazil</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/273" hreflang="en">gender and militarism</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=12325&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="HkF9xIDlaSxKm9B3OgUxFSVmQfGTInqYPW2CQKV_REo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sat, 01 Oct 1994 00:00:00 +0000 warresisters 12325 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/1994/country-profiles-0#comments Country Profiles https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/1994/country-profiles <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--3694.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="3694" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Jun 1994</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Brazil</h3> <p> Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world. Under the military government (1964-1985), Brazil also accumulated the largest foreign debt in the world--US $121 billion. A constitutional process began in 1986, culminating in a new Constitution in 1988. Fernando Collor de Mello was elected President in 1990, the first directly-elected president since 1960. </p><p>Economy: Gross National Product per capita is $2,540 (to compare, GNP per capita in the US is $20,910). High inflation, with almost half the population living below the poverty line. Main exports are coffee, soymeal, sugar, orange juice, iron ore, steel products, motor vehicles, aircraft.</p> <p>Population: 150.4 million (almost 75 percent live in cities). A little more than half the population is descended from European (mostly Portuguese) and Middle Eastern immigrants; out of perhaps five million indigenous people before the Conquest, approximately 250,000 remain. Almost six percent of the population is descended from African slaves; there is a large minority of Japanese-Brazilians.</p> <p>Languages: Portuguese and many indigenous languages.</p> <p>Life Expectancy: 66 years (to compare, life expectancy in the US is 76 years); in the poverty stricken Northeast and Amazon, 45 years.</p> <p>Infant Mortality: In 1992, one Brazilian child under age five died every two minutes. Almost a quarter of all infant deaths in Latin America are in Brazil. More than half of all child deaths in Brazil take place in the Northeast, where the official under-five mortality rate (116 deaths per 1,000 births) is nearly double the national average.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births 1992)</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Ireland (lowest in the world)</td> <td>6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>US</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cuba (lowest in Latin America)</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Argentina</td> <td>24</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Brazil</td> <td>65</td> </tr> <tr> <td>India</td> <td>124</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Niger (highest in the world</td> <td>320</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3><a name="Heading7" id="Heading7">Bolivia</a></h3> <p> Dolores de Vargas is a founder of Centro Integral de la Mujer, which organizes self-help groups for poor women. "In Bolivia," she notes, "we say that poverty has a woman's face. The lack of education and health care in my country matches Haiti. There is an article in our penal code which states that, if a relative, who lives in the same house with you, is violent towards you, it is only a crime if he causes ´grievous harm'. Rape is not a crime unless the girl is underage. In the rural areas, the girl is usually forced to marry the rapist--it is one way the man can force the girl to marry him. There is, of course, no such thing as marital rape. How can we speak about women's human rights when a woman does not have enough food or water?" Centro Integral de la Mujer is hoping to start documenting violence against women, and to perhaps start a shelter for battered women. </p><p>Contact: Centro Integral de la Mujer, Casilla 1302, Tarija, Bolivia. Tel. 0591 66 45818/43032/32036</p> <p>Bolivia has the lowest life expectancy (54 years) in Latin America, and the highest infant mortality rate (105 deaths per 1,000 live births). It is considered Latin America's least developed country. Almost 65 percent of the people belong to the indigenous nations Aymara or Quechua. The gains made by miners and other workers after the 1952 popular revolution have been undermined by two successive right-wing governments. Women played a crucial role in the fall of Bolivia's last military dictatorship--it was the hunger strike of four women miners, during Christmas 1982, that inspired massive acts of civil disobedience around the country. The Women's Platform, founded on March 8, 1989, has initiated many programs to improve women's status--one of the most recent, organized around the slogan "Since I want Others to Respect Me, I Respect Others", raised public awareness about violence against women and the need for law reform.</p> <p>Many peasants now depend on the cultivation of the coca leaf, and the US war on drugs has made their communities battle grounds. The population is seven million and GNP per capita is $570.</p> <h3><a name="Heading8" id="Heading8">Colombia</a></h3> <p> Political life in Colombia has been dominated by the rivalry between the country's Liberal and Conservative parties: during the 1950s, the parties' power struggle resulted in the deaths of some 250,000 people. Amnesty International believes some 20,000 people have been killed for political reasons since 1986. </p><p>Ofelia Gomez works with a feminist group in Bogota, Colombia. "In Colombia women suffer violence at home, in the streets and in the media. This is an issue that touches us all. Since the 1980s the Colombian women's movement has tried to make violence against women visible.In the last few years this has become a topic of public discussion, but in a distorted way. The government has recognized the violence, but only because it effects the family and children, not because it effects women. Since 1991 there has been a movement to form a new Constitution. The national women's movement made several proposals, such as the free choice of maternity. (We are a Catholic country so we do not talk about abortion). We also proposed an article protecting female heads of households and against discrimination against women. Only the first proposal did not pass. We made a proposal against domestic violence which was brought up by women in Parliament. This didn't succeed either. We were told it was the only proposal to get laughs when it was discussed."</p> <h3><a name="Heading9" id="Heading9">Argentina</a></h3> <p> Argentina, ruled by a small group of land and cattle owners, was one of the ten richest countries in the world in the early 1900s. The last military dictatorship (1976-83) led to brutal human rights abuses and a new word in the international vocabulary: the disappeared. Argentina's population of 31.9 million people includes the largest British community outside the Commonwealth and the second largest Jewish community in the western hemisphere. Argentina has one of the highest literacy rates in the world. GNP per capita is $2,160. </p><p>In 1865, Paraguay fought a war against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay (The War of the Triple Alliance) which reduced Paraguay's population by half (from 450,000 to 220,000 in 1870). More war was to follow, this time against Paraguay's own people. General Alfredo Stroessner seized power in 1955 and ruled until 1989, during which time one-quarter of the population emigrated to Brazil and Argentina. Most of the population is mestizo, of both European and Indian background; while Spanish is the official language, most people speak Guarani, an indigenous language. In 1987, fundamentalist US missionaries from the New Tribes Mission were responsible for the deaths of five Ayoreo Indians. Violent evictions of Indian communities from their lands are common, as are conflicts between landless peasants and owners of large plantations. There are over four million people in Paraguay. The GNP is $1,030 per capita.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/womens-wg" hreflang="en">Women&#039;s WG</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/183" hreflang="en">Bolivia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/99" hreflang="en">Brazil</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/273" hreflang="en">gender and militarism</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3694&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="aSVbQj2jZApK3g9lXPbol3m13Z55yjyn827yOZO_AwY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 31 May 1994 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 3694 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/1994/country-profiles#comments