Norway http://updates.wri-irg.org/en en Turkey: activists take action against arms shipment as military operation begins https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/turkey-activists-take-action-against-arms-shipment-military-operation-begins <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41835.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41835" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2019-10/bristol_action.jpg?itok=ZfQMCCV3 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-10/bristol_action.jpg?itok=xwe0ytMx 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-10/bristol_action.jpg?itok=xwe0ytMx" alt="A photo taken at dawn. In the foreground a number of people are lying on the road attached together with metal tubes. In the distance are a number of vehicles on the road." title="Activists in Bristol block an arms factory." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 11 Oct 2019</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>As Turkey begins its military attack on Kurdish regions in northern Syria, leaving <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-50011468">dozens killed and tens of thousands fleeing their homes</a>, activists are taking action against arms shipments to the Turkish military, and some states are responding by suspending arms shipments.</p> <p>In Bristol, UK, four activists used lock-on tubes <a href="https://thebristolcable.org/2019/10/activists-block-filton-arms-companies-to-protest-turkeys-invasion-of-syria/">to blockade a site operated by arms companies</a> BAE Systems, MBDA and Airbus. The group blocked the entrance for four hours. BAE Systems have a £100 million deal with the Turkish Air Force to develop a new fighter jet, and the UK has exported over a billion pounds of arms to Turkey since 2014. WRI affiliate Campaign Against Arms Trade called for an immediate arms embargo - the British government announced a suspension of new arms export licenses to Turkey, but will continue delivering orders that have already received a license.</p> <p>Two states - Finland and Norway - have announced suspensions of arms sales to Turkey. The Finnish government has announced they will block all new arms export licenses to Turkey while the conflict continues - this will impact all future arms exports licenses, and WRI affiliate Sadankomitea (Committee of 100) are part of a call for the government's action to be extended to include the cancellation of all existing arms exports to Turkey.</p> <p><div class="embed-media embed-media--rich-twitter"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><p lang="en" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en" xml:lang="en">Together with <a href="https://twitter.com/Rauhanliitto?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@Rauhanliitto</a> we are also calling for the cancellation of existing arms export permits to Turkey. <a href="https://t.co/N3Ti75T580">https://t.co/N3Ti75T580</a></p>— Sadankomitea (@Sadankomitea) <a href="https://twitter.com/Sadankomitea/status/1182289184540758017?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">October 10, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script></div></p> <p>Norway took similar action, announcing an immediate suspension of arms sales - though the act was described as "largely symbolic", with relatively small exports of <a href="https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/5b32b17e6b194492bd434ee3bbbce01c/en-gb/pdfs/stm201720180019000engpdfs.pdf">around 24m Norwegian Korne </a>(£2 million, €2.4m, $2.6) worth of arms sales in 2017.</p> <p>A similar symbolic decision was taken by the government of Flanders, the Dutch speaking region of the Belgium.</p> <p>The vast majority of Dutch MPs backed sanctions against Turkey, including withdrawing military cooperation and a halt on arms deliveries to Turkey.</p> <p>In Germany, the Aktion Aufschrei campaign called on the German government to stop all arms exports to Turkey, and to cancel existing arms export licenses: https://www.aufschrei-waffenhandel.de/presse-video-audio/presseerklaerungen/11102019-aktion-aufschrei-sofortiges-ruestungsexportverbot-gegen-tuerkei/ The German government announced they would not allow any more weapons to be exported that could be used in the conflict.</p> <p>France also suspended all arms shipments to Turkey, and called on the European Union to consider an arms embargo against Turkey. The EU shipped $50m of arms to Turkey in 2018, mainly from Italy, Spain, UK and Germany.</p> <p><strong>Do you know of other action against arms shipments to Turkey? Let us know! Email info@wri-irg.org</strong></p> <p><strong>Updated 14/10/19 to include news of Germany and France.</strong></p> <p><strong>Updated 17/10/19 to add information about the UK.</strong></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/turkey-stop-cycle-violence" hreflang="en">Turkey: Stop the cycle of violence</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/256" hreflang="en">Turkey</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/155" hreflang="en">Finland</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/158" hreflang="en">Syria</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/192" hreflang="en">Netherlands</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/166" hreflang="en">Belgium</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41835&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="8XSHB4vkhF1HLIb5l4tvtdRpmRHzfx7DR5rE84heQVg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 11 Oct 2019 11:11:53 +0000 Andrew 41835 at http://updates.wri-irg.org The return of conscription? https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2018/return-conscription <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41333.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41333" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2018-01/join_the_circus-cropped_0.jpg?itok=JoM0F3Bv 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-01/join_the_circus-cropped_0.jpg?itok=NIh_HDj8 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-01/join_the_circus-cropped_0.jpg?itok=NIh_HDj8" alt="People dressed as clowns stand outside a recruitment centre in Helsinki" title="Photo: AKL. Counter-recruitment in Finland" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 19 Jan 2018</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Hannah Brock</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>When I started working for War Resisters’ International in 2012, we were beginning to rethink our strategy as a group supporting conscientious objectors: a central concern since our foundation in 1921. According to international standards, the right to conscientious objection should be available not just to conscripts but also to professional soldiers who join up voluntarily. In reality however, most of WRI’s work up to that point had been in supporting conscripted soldiers – those who had to sign up without making an active choice to do so. But in the twenty years leading up to 2012, conscription had been suspended or abolished in at least twenty two states<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[1]</a>. What did this mean for those supporting draft evaders, if there was not much of the draft left?</p> <p>While that’s still a question we need to answer, in the last six years, the picture has changed: Norway has extended conscription to women; Sweden has reintroduced conscription for all; Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Kuwait have reintroduced conscription for men after short hiatuses; Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have introduced conscription for the first time, and there have been rumours of its reintroduction in Croatia, where it was suspended in 2008, and indeed <a href="http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/frances-macron-pledges-big-increase-defense-budget-52459467">in France</a>, where it was suspended in 1996. Conscription still exists in <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/co/rtba/index.html">over 100 states</a>, and there remains a variety of responses to conscientious objectors, many of whom are still <a href="http://www.wri-irg.org/en/taxonomy/term/2">imprisoned</a>.</p> <p>This article looks at what has caused the shift back towards conscription in recent years, and what it means for pacifist movements.</p> <h2>Regional security situations changes</h2> <p>Developments in two regions – east and northern Europe and the Gulf states – have been explicitly and implicitly justified by threats from neighbouring nations, and for other state-specific reasons.</p> <h4>The Gulf States</h4> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_1_3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="94fcde40-55e1-45d0-b19e-0d7ffdbf61dc" data-langcode="en"> <img class="img-responsive" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/medium/public/2017-12/uae-75399.jpg?itok=ogM6Cfop" srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_325x325/public/2017-12/uae-75399.jpg?itok=zgwSCxrj 1x" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <figcaption>Photo: uaeinteract.com</figcaption> </figure> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p>In the United Arab Emirates, conscription began in 2014. Conscription lasts for nine months for high school graduates and two years for non-graduates. Women are also encouraged to volunteer, although it is not obligatory. The army are selling the opportunity to women as a chance to develop leadership skills, build team spirit and enhance self-confidence<a href="#_ftn3" title="">[3]</a>. The UAE have also been investing in their army and navy in recent years. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, the UAE was the world's ninth-largest arms importer during the period between 2008 and 2012.</p> <p>In nearby Kuwait, military service was reintroduced in 2017<a href="#_ftn4" title="">[4]</a>, following the enforcement of the new mandatory military service law approved by the cabinet in May 2015. Compulsory military service was suspended in Kuwait in 2001, and reintroduction was debated periodically over the following years.</p> <p>Conscription was introduced in Qatar for the first time in 2014. The new national service law requires men aged 18–35 to train in the military for either two or four months. Minister of State for Defense Hamad bin Ali Al-Attiyah said that it would help make Qataris “ideal citizens”.<a href="#_ftn5" title="">[5]</a> Those who fail to sign up for military service and who do not respond to summons are not eligible for either government or NGO jobs, nor able to obtain a business licence  or to register on the job seekers list. Those who present false documents or have someone else attend a medical check-up in their place face a jail term of between one month and one year and/or a fine of up to QR20,000 ($5,500).<a href="#_ftn6" title="">[6]</a> <a href="https://www.thenational.ae/world/qatar-approves-compulsory-military-service-for-men-reports-1.594248">One Qatari official said</a> "the aim of the military service is to get young Qataris to rely on themselves". Similar rhetoric has been used the world over to promote compulsory military service.</p> <p>The introduction of conscription follows an increase in weapons purchases. In 2014 Qatar went on a ‘shopping spree’ at the Doha International Maritime Defence Exhibition (DIMDEX), purchasing new tanks, helicopters, warships, missiles and artillery worth <a href="https://dohanews.co/qatars-military-build-continues-24bn-new-arms-deals/">US$23.89 billion</a>. In fact, Kuwait, UAE and Qatar increased their arms imports between 2007–11 and 2012–16 by 175%, 63% and 245%, respectively<a href="#_ftn7" title="">[7]</a>.</p> <p>Conscription in countries neighbouring the Gulf region – Syria, Israel, Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt and Iran – has been in force for many years. Furthermore, there have been accusations of forced recruitment by Syrian government forces<a href="#_ftn8" title="">[8]</a>: one of the many reasons refugees have been fleeing the country<a href="#_ftn9" title="">[9]</a>. Conscription also exists in the <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2014/conscription-begins-kurdish-region-syria-evasion-elsewhere"><em>de facto</em></a><a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2014/conscription-begins-kurdish-region-syria-evasion-elsewhere"> autonomous Kurdish region of Rojava</a>, and conscientious objection as a right has <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2016/co-recognised-part-kurdish-syrian-region-rojava">recently been recognised</a> in some cantons.</p> <p>All of the which have recently adopted conscription have tense relations with close neighbours (Iran, in the case of Kuwait and the UAE) and are located in a region with ongoing military tensions – including the threat posed by ISIS and ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Yemen, which have not always respected state boundaries.</p> <h4>Russia’s near-neighbours <img alt="" src="///C:\Users\toshiba\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image004.jpg" /></h4> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9959dfe6-bf36-40b1-98f1-d178bb974bd3" data-langcode="en"> <img class="img-responsive" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/34706486151_926ca689b3_o.jpg?itok=bHJ4kbmu" srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/34706486151_926ca689b3_o.jpg?itok=bHJ4kbmu 1x" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> <figcaption>Photo: Ukrainian troops Credit: 7th Army Training Command</figcaption> </figure> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p>Russian military aggression, especially following the Ukraine–Russia conflict from 2014, has been cited as a motivation for reintroducing conscription in Lithuania, Sweden and Georgia (where it was reestablished <a href="https://jamestown.org/program/georgian-authorities-reinstate-military-conscription">only eight months after it had been abolished</a>). Recently, Estonia increased its conscript numbers soon after a decision was made to make it easier for women to volunteer and to make them eligible for all military units<a href="#_ftn10" title="">[10]</a>.</p> <p>In Ukraine, conscription ended in 2013, but was reimposed in 2014. As part of the war of words between the Ukrainian and Russian governments, draft desertion figures have been contested. Soon after it was imposed unofficial sources reported that Ukrainian/Romanian border area hotels and motels have at some points been “completely filled with Ukrainian men evading conscription”, which was widely quoted in Russian state media, with Vladimir Putin voicing his support for Ukrainian draft evasion. The Ukrainian government has denied that there is a major problem with mobilisation, and accused the Russian government of inflating desertion figures and inciting people to resist the draft in a concerted propaganda campaign.<a href="#_ftn11" title="">[11]</a> Furthermore, conscripts can only be legally mobilised if they sign conscription papers; thus, many are evading the draft by living at an address other than the one they are registered at to prevent the papers reaching them. On 6 November 2017, the Ukrainian daily newspaper <em>Segodnya</em> reported two police raids on nightclubs in Kiev and Lviv in which recruitment office personnel checked the papers of young men and handed out a number of conscription notices. The police reported that in Kiev, 32 young men were sent straight to the recruitment office.<a href="#_ftn12" title="">[12]</a></p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9d2ef199-308a-4187-bcd2-965c2ac65336" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/stoppaaurora.jpg?itok=NB7m5OSA 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/stoppaaurora.jpg?itok=NB7m5OSA" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p>In Sweden, conscription was abolished in 2010, ending a 109-year practice. However, it was quickly reestablished in 2017 'in the wake of<a href="http://www.independent.co.uk/topic/Russia"> </a>Russia’s annexation of Crimea<a href="#_ftn13" title="">[13]</a>’. This follows a general shift in Swedish foreign policy. Though not a NATO member, in 2017 it hosted the Aurora military exercises<a href="#_ftn14" title="">[14]</a> – Sweden’s biggest war game in 23 years – which involved troops from many NATO countries. In 2018 there will also be a hike in military spending by the centre-left government, to the tune of 8.1 billion crowns ($1 billion) over the following three years. Defence Minister Peter Hultqvist said “[t]his [extra money] … sends an important signal to the world around us and is good for Sweden.”<a href="#_ftn15" title="">[15]</a> We do not agree. In the years between abolition and reinstatement, the army had failed to meet its recruitment targets. With the reintroduction of conscription came the inclusion of women.</p> <h2>Who can be soldiers?</h2> <p>For many years, women were only compelled to join the armed forces in Israel, Eritrea and Mozambique. However, the draft was extended to women in Sweden in 2017 and in Norway in 2013. This change was championed by women politicians and others calling for 'gender-neutral conscription', and <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2013/conscription-extended-women-norway">arguing that</a> they needed “a modern and diverse organisation with different people, skills and perspectives.” In Norway, only a small number of men are called up for military service, given the size of the military and the number of volunteers. The inclusion of women was opposed by some feminists<a href="#_ftn16" title="">[16]</a> who declared that suggestions that the nature of the military might be changed by the involvement of women was false, as the army would serve only to militarise women having integrating them into the prevailing male-dominated culture.</p> <p>The position of women in the military has been expanded in many militaries in recent decades; both the proportion of women in the military and the roles they can undertake have increased<a href="#_ftn17" title="">[17]</a>.</p> <p>Similar disputes concerning the roles of women in the military have occurred in other countries who have been grappling with questions surrounding parity of opportunity in the armed forces for marginalised groups. Recently in the USA, the role of trans* people in the military has been the subject of fierce debate. While some see the proposed expulsion of trans* folk merely as another form of discrimination and othering, some have argued that while <a href="http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/08/trump-signs-memo-banning-transgender-military-recruits-170826003421108.html">Trump’s position</a> represents an attack, the trans community <a href="https://medium.com/@NJNP/trans-liberation-not-us-militarism-selective-outrage-over-trans-military-ban-obscures-larger-6079fa051c56">should not be allowed to become</a> ‘leveraged to support U.S. militarism and imperialism’ and that it is necessary to ‘criticise policies that single out and attack trans individuals while refusing to endorse, support, or celebrate the U.S. military’.<a href="#_ftn18" title="">[18]</a></p> <p>This controversy comes only a few years after the abolition of the infamous ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ policy which silenced LGBTQ* people in the US armed forces. Its abolition was trumpeted as a watershed moment in the history of gay rights. Others had questioned this campaign aim, saying that queers should instead be <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2011/opinion-queer-antimilitarist-perspective-repeal-dont-ask-dont-tell-us">demanding the abolition</a> of an institution that is ‘militarist, masculinist, and homophobic’, rather than calling for the inclusion of new groups into its fold.</p> <p>Religion has also been a grounds for exemption. Currently the ultra-Orthodox community in Israel are <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/tensions-continue-israel-after-exemption-ultra-orthodox-deemed-unconstitutional">struggling to maintain their rights</a> as a group exempt from conscription. While their opposition to military service is not based on an anti-war stance, at WRI we see it as ‘another example of the Israeli military trying to militarise yet another group in society, and make participation in the military a marker of equality and citizenship’<a href="#_ftn19" title="">[19]</a>, and therefore support, in principle, their struggle to avoid the draft. Meanwhile in Russia, a ban on Jehovah’s Witnesses (on grounds that they are ‘extremist’) has meant that young Jehovah’s Witness men are at risk. Previously, their membership of the group meant that they were readily granted permission to do alternative service. Now, military call-up offices have denied several army conscripts the option of alternative civilian service<a href="#_ftn20" title="">[20]</a>.</p> <p><strong><img alt="" src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/gwo0Tx8i4BRjg7DVC5oYRu--QeskZiZemCh8JzTymBaM6bq6hOnOxzFV2Ea4k39OzwCrM6s74pPB1QzHue6jS8GkihbSeXnOfcHL8O6nQbLeSW0B7C1VUzOc2FlxRFof5cyXMF0n" /></strong></p> <p>As conscription is introduced for the first time in some states, the inclusion or exclusion of marginalised groups will become a contested issue in new places and military service may gradually be seen as a prerequisite for respect, or even citizenship. This is a hurdle that has to be jumped, and a way for unequal societies to claim they are treating all groups the same – a faux ‘equality in the military’, which has been called ‘pinkwashing’ when referring to the recruitment of queer people – a process especially developed <a href="https://wagingnonviolence.org/feature/exposing-israels-pinkwashing/">in Israel</a>.</p> <h2>Right-wing spin</h2> <p>Threats of obligatory military service are still used by the right to further political agendas. In many contexts conscription is seen as a by-word for discipline; young people moulded to be ‘good citizens’, used to following orders and working hard. It is often mooted as a solution following moral panics over unemployment, hedonism and apathy in younger generations. As an activist in Thailand I met last year <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/military-and-monarchy">said</a>: “[c]onscription is the way to produce obedience”.</p> <p>Recently the rumours most likely to result in a policy change have been circulated Croatia, where a coalition government was put off by the financial cost. As well as boosting military numbers, conscription was heralded as a method of bringing the country together: “I will advocate for the military conscription so that there is no more divisions between the north and the south of Croatia”<a href="#_ftn21" title="">[21]</a>, said a member of the conservative Croatian Democratic Union. As yet, movements towards the draft are stalled (follow our affiliate the <a href="https://www.cms.hr/">Centre for Peace Studies</a> for new developments).</p> <h2>What this means for us</h2> <p>As Hans Lammerant argued in his excellent article from 2013 ‘<a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2013/end-conscription-and-transformation-war">The end of conscription and the transformation in war</a>’, remote control warfare and the end of the Cold War reduced the need for large, boots-on-the-ground style armies in Europe. These militaries were now more likely to be engaged in proxy wars and ‘humanitarian interventions’, run by ‘lean and mobile armies with well-trained soldiers’. Some European nations – especially those, such have Sweden, that have been unable to staff their new, professional armies with volunteers – are bucking this trend. Elsewhere in Europe, Finland is clinging on to conscription and continues to imprison total objectors, and an Austrian referendum in 2013 resulted in the continuation of conscription by a small margin<a href="#_ftn22" title="">[22]</a>.</p> <p>In other regions, where states have historically relied upon small, professional armies, the ambitions of some states dictate the kind of conscription (as in the Gulf) we thought was on the way out.</p> <p>While different motivations are supplied by governments for using conscript labour to fill their armies, it’s clear that – worldwide – the picture is more mixed than the one we were seeing in the first decade of this century: that of conscription being abolished gradually. It is important that as governments bring back conscription, they also introduce provisions for conscientious objectors. These provisions should be at least as robust as they were before conscription was initially abolished, but preferably more wide-reaching. Any substitute service offered by governments in lieu of military service should be in line with the reasons for the objection, of an entirely civilian nature and in the public interest, and not punitive – both in terms of the duration of the service and its nature. Moreover, because an alternative civilian service is not required by international law<a href="#_ftn23" title="">[23]</a>. Hence,  governments with conscript armies can simply choose to let conscientious objectors go, as has been the case in Norway since 2011<a href="#_ftn24" title="">[24]</a>.</p> <p>Those of us who oppose the existence of all armed forces – not just militaries that forcibly conscript people to join – will not be content with the rights of conscientious objectors being respected through the provision of a substitute to military service. It’s not just that we don’t want to be in the military ourselves – we don’t want anyone else to be, either. We need to remember the lessons learnt by those who have taken back power from governments and armies in the past, such as <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2013/insumision-movement-against-military-service-spain-legitimate-disobedience"><em>los insumisos</em></a><em>, </em>a movement in the 1980s and ‘90s that empowered thousands of young people in Spain to reclaim their bodies, and helped to bring conscription to an end after 230 years. Their goal was to make conscription unworkable and bring about its abolition, but also to shape post-conscription ‘defence’ policy, and to eventually abolish Spain’s military<a href="#_ftn25" title="">[25]</a>. The present is not a time for depression at this apparent regression, but a time to work together more closely and to learn from the experiences of others.</p> <p>Moreover, more conscription means more conscientious objectors. The War Resisters’ International network exist to support pacifism around the world, including conscientious objectors. Groups have been joining our network and finding international solidarity for almost 100 years, and we hope to support more CO groups that emerge from these newly-conscripted nations. We are keen to make links with dissenters in those nations that are beginning to conscript people for the first time. Militarism is perhaps most tangible in states where young people are automatically expected to join the army – preparation for war becomes a process conspicuous in every home and school – and it is these environments that often produce opposition movements.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" title="">[1]</a> Including Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden, Morocco, Peru and Argentina. See ‘<a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/cobook-online/co-in-history">Conscientious Objection in History</a>’, in <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/cobook-online">Conscientious Objection: A Practical Companion for  Movements</a>.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref3" title="">[3]</a> See War Resisters’ International, 28 August 2014, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2014/conscription-begins-uae">Conscription begins in UAE</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref4" title="">[4]</a> See War Resisters’ International, 7 October 2017, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/kuwait-compulsory-military-service-reintroduced">Kuwait: Compulsory military service reintroduced</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref5" title="">[5]</a> See Doha News, 2 August 2015, <a href="https://dohanews.co/qatars-national-service-program-puts-new-emphasis-on-military-training/">Qatar’s national service program puts new emphasis on military training</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref6" title="">[6]</a> See Gulf State News, 25 March 2014, <a href="http://www.gsn-online.com/qatar-stiff-penalties-for-dodging-conscription-0">Qatar: Stiff penalties for dodging conscription</a>.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref7" title="">[7]</a> From the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 22 February 2017, <a href="https://www.sipri.org/commentary/blog/2017/state-major-arms-transfers-8-graphics">The state of major arms transfers in 8 graphics</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref8" title="">[8]</a> War Resisters’ International, 22 February 2016, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2016/syria-citizens-conscripted-after-arrest-children-recruited">Syria: citizens conscripted after arrest, children recruited</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref9" title="">[9]</a> Deutsche Welle, 8 June 2017, <a href="http://www.dw.com/en/syrian-refugees-escaping-military-conscription-face-uncertain-fate-upon-return/a-39159953">Syrian refugees escaping military conscription face uncertain fate upon return</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref10" title="">[10]</a> Estonian World, 3 October 2017, <a href="http://estonianworld.com/security/women-allowed-serve-estonian-military/">More women to be allowed to serve in the Estonian military</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref11" title="">[11]</a> The Guardian, 1 May 2014, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/01/ukraine-military-conscription-pro-russia-separatists-donetsk">Ukraine reintroduces conscription to counter threat of pro-Russia separatists</a>.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref12" title="">[12]</a> Connection e.V., <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/criminal-proceedings-against-ukrainian-conscientious-objector-and-journalist-may-be#2017">Criminal proceedings against Ukrainian conscientious objector and journalist may be resumed</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref13" title="">[13]</a> The Independent, 2 March 2017, <a href="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/sweden-military-conscription-draft-russia-balkan-threat-men-women-a7607411.html">Sweden brings back military conscription in face of growing Russia threat</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref14" title="">[14]</a> Opposition campaigns were mounted, including Stop Aurora<a href="http://stoppaaurora.se/om-oss/"> </a><a href="http://stoppaaurora.se/om-oss/">http://stoppaaurora.se/om-oss/</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref15" title="">[15]</a> Reuters, 16 August 2017, <a href="https://www.reuters.com/article/us-sweden-government-defence/sweden-to-raise-military-budget-by-sek-8-billion-through-2020-idUSKCN1AW0ML">Sweden to raise military budget by SEK 8 billion through 2020</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref16" title="">[16]</a> Including Norwegian Association for Women’s Rights (Norsk Kvinnesaksforening, NKF, the Norwegian Section of the International Alliance of Women, IAW) and the Norwegian Section of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, WILPF. See their statement <a href="http://womenalliance.org/no-to-female-conscription">here</a>.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref17" title="">[17]</a> Recently in South Korea, for example: <a href="http://m.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20171220000165">South Korea Herald, Korea to expand women's role in military</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref18" title="">[18]</a> See No Justice, No Pride, 26 July 2017, <a href="https://medium.com/@NJNP/trans-liberation-not-us-militarism-selective-outrage-over-trans-military-ban-obscures-larger-6079fa051c56">Trans Liberation, Not US Militarism: Selective Outrage Over Trans Military Ban Obscures Larger Failures to Support Trans Communities</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref19" title="">[19]</a> A quote from Sergeiy Sandler, WRI Executive member and activist with New Profile in Israel. See War Resisters’ International, 29 August 2014, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2014/palestinian-druze-reservists-conscripts-and-ultra-ortodox-refuse-israel-attempts-draw">Palestinian Druze, reservists, conscripts and ultra-Orthodox refuse; Israel attempts to draw in more groups to the military</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref20" title="">[20]</a> War Resisters’ International, 20 December 2017, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/problems-alternative-service-jehovahs-witnesses-after-ban">Problems with alternative service for Jehovah's Witnesses after ban</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref21" title="">[21]</a> See Total Croatia News, 24 February 2016, <a href="https://www.total-croatia-news.com/politics/2594-croatian-ruling-coalition-wants-to-reintroduce-military-conscription">Croatian Ruling Coalition Wants to Reintroduce Military Conscription</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref22" title="">[22]</a> It was claimed that many voted to keep conscription because they feared that organisations – such as the Red Cross – that benefit from the labour of those undertaking substitute service would suffer if conscription was abolished. See War Resisters’ International, 20 February 2013, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2013/austria-votes-keep-conscription">Austria votes to keep conscription</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref23" title="">[23]</a> Quaker United Nations Office, January 2015, <a href="http://www.quno.org/sites/default/files/resources/QUNO%202015%20RB%20Conscientious%20Objection%20FINAL.pdf">International Standards on Conscientious Objection to </a></p> <p><a href="http://www.quno.org/sites/default/files/resources/QUNO%202015%20RB%20Conscientious%20Objection%20FINAL.pdf">Military Service</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref24" title="">[24]</a> War Resisters’ International, 10 August 2011, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2011/norway-end-substitute-service-conscientious-objectors">Norway: end of substitute service for conscientious objectors</a></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref25" title="">[25]</a> See Rafael Ajangiz, 1 January 2001, <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2001/empowerment-demilitarisation">Empowerment for demilitarisation</a></p> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_33 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-bio--bio-only.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio.html.twig * field--paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--field-bio.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-bio field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><a href="/en/node/40098">Hannah Brock</a> is Right to Refuse to Kill Programme Worker at War Resisters' International, working with movements against conscription and for the rights of conscientious objectors worldwide.</p> <p>With thanks to Lyn Setchell for proofreading.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/1" hreflang="en">Right to Refuse to Kill</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/93" hreflang="en">Kuwait</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/132" hreflang="en">Qatar</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/141" hreflang="en">United Arab Emirates</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/157" hreflang="en">Ukraine</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/173" hreflang="en">Sweden</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/245" hreflang="en">Lithuania</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/250" hreflang="en">Georgia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">France</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41333&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="DNw4j1Occw26YU5QK8r0z0idVYVnt1NRgpRFZvuNAkE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 19 Jan 2018 15:33:08 +0000 HBrock 41333 at http://updates.wri-irg.org Conscription for women in Norway https://wri-irg.org/en/ConscriptWomenNorway <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--22085.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="22085" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 25 Jul 2013</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --></p> <div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a77c2e44-a133-40ba-99c4-458216203acc" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/WomenInNorwayArmy.home.jpg?itok=pM0BcGxG 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/WomenInNorwayArmy.home.jpg?itok=pM0BcGxG" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> On 14th June this year the Norwegian parliament decided to introduce conscription for women. The question was on the agenda of all the political parties’ yearly meetings this spring, spearheaded by women from a young generation. The most surprising thing, bearing in mind the Norwegian context, is that the socialist party’s young women were at the very front in calling for this change. The surprise is because this party, and especially the younger generation, have in the past taken a strong antimilitaristic stand. Now, their main argument is that women should have the same rights, as well as taking the same duties, as men. What has happened? Why is conscription for women so important to introduce? What has happened with the former feminist stand that was based on values of worthiness, anti-patriarchy and non-hierarchy, and not automatic equality on the male society’s premises?<br /> </p><h3>Background</h3> <p>Women can in Norway join the military forces in all positions and branches. They can also be conscripted on voluntary bases. However from 2015 it will be a duty, not a choice. From 2010 young women had to register for the military. The military has a goal to reach 25 % of women before 2020 - today there are only 8-10% women. As in many other countries where women are part of the military forces, women suffer from harassment and in particular sexual harassment. Researchers find that little action is taken by the authorities. The Norwegian military is in practice professional. Very few men are conscripted - around a quarter. That means that very few women will be conscripted. From a military point of view, it will be easier to find men and women among the conscripted group with the right qualifications needed for a highly technological and professionalized military. As the minister of defense, Anne-Grethe Strøm-Erichsen, put it: “We don’t introduce conscription for men and women because we are in need of more soldiers, but because we need the best.” Military conscription as a system is deeply rooted in the Norwegian society as part of the democracy! All Norwegian men, and now also women, are equal in defending the country, it is said. If the conscription were removed, something very fundamental would break down - at least, that is the belief. A professional army is unthinkable. The fact that Norway is very close to a professional army today is not talked about. The question may be asked: how democratic is the conscription when only a forth of the men are conscripted, and there will probably be even less women, and when it comes to involving the conscripted soldier in decision-making and military strategising?</p> <h3>Different arguments</h3> <p>The views on conscription for women may seem to be linked to generations - the older women are against it since women still have other burdens in society, like giving birth to (and raising) children. A lot of measures have been taken to give men the opportunity to look after children, yet there are still more women who do that. The younger generation thinks that it is high time that women should enter men's domains, like the military. Another argument is that the military represents an area of education and work. Conscription is a route to getting jobs. It is said that it is not fair that women are not getting the same access as men, that the military is a symbol of power in the society, and that women should have the possibility to be part of this power. Another argument again, used by the military itself, is to be found in UN resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security, arguing that augmenting the number of women in the military is part of implementing the resolution in Norway. There are two main reasons for this. One is that women bring other perspectives and values to the military and will represent a difference to the military itself. That will contribute to a “softening” of the military, and give it a more human image. The other argument is that more women in the military will give the military the possibility to reach out to women in countries in conflict and where NATO forces have a role. In order to promote this, Norway has engaged a woman as gender advisor at NATO’s headquarters. In this, respect the military tries to present itself as a peace organisation. The military's war-making and occupation are not communicated. One example of this discourse being used is Norway's participation in NATO’s occupation of Afghanistan. It was argued that this was partly for Afghanistan women and their rights. It was therefore important to recruit women to the Norwegian military in order to make it easier to reach out to the Afghanistan women. The military has a dual argument of women in the military: women are equal to men, and women are different from men. On the one side women can be “one of the boys”, and on the other side women bring in a different perspective, a feminine and caring side, which will “soften” the military and give it a more human face. In reality the first perspective is of dominance. After all, the women need to do the same training as men - hard physical training in order to be fit to meet the enemy, and it is male culture that governs. How can female caring values penetrate a patriarchal and military structure? A Norwegian researcher, Berit von der Lippe, has through several articles pointed at the military’s rhetoric. She points that the arguments of equality and women making a difference do not communicate the fact that it is about military operations abroad on behalf of UN, KFOR, NATO etc, and not about human security or a contribution to peace and conflict solving which is the military’s message.</p> <h3>What sort of feminism?</h3> <p>The arguments for conscription of women presented above are on the one side that women are "equal" men and on the other side they represent a difference. What is lacking in this discussion are values, and the aims of the military, and the question of what sort of values we would like to base our society on. Especially, it is strange that this is also lacking amongst the young socialist women aiming for a change in society. Them wanting to militarise women instead of demilitarising men is very hard to understand. I am wondering what has happened or what went wrong during the end of last century and the beginning of this one. Feminism to me, as we developed through the 1970’s and the 1980’s, means values of nonviolence: non-hierarchical and non-aggressiveness. It means that our goals should challenge the structure of obedience and subordination. Radical feminism was in accordance with the principles of nonviolence. We talked about liberation - not about being equal. Our struggle was about giving a higher status to social values and work linked to women, such as caring. So, what has happened during these 30 – 40 years? Why are radical women's values not valid any longer? It will take too much space to reflect around these questions, so I will reduce to mention a few elements which may be further explored:</p> <ul> <ul> <li>Ideas from the feminist movement being co-opted by the state-bureaucracy - 'state-feminism'. This has been promoted by Gro Harlem Brundtland’s government (around 40 % women). Better child-care and maternal leave made it possible for women to work.</li> <li>Promoting women's equality, moving into men’s domains such as leadership positions, boards and male-dominated employment.</li> <li>Reducing feminism to having no political content.</li> <li>A change in political ideology, where liberal policies, and individuality (understood as egocentrism), are more dominant, together with consumerism, competition and materialism.</li> <p>Earlier feminism questioned society’s structure and made patriarchy and military functions visible. Feminists wanted to change these through nonviolence and experimenting with other ways of living. These fundamental questions have disappeared from what is understood by today’s feminism in Norway.</p></ul> </ul> <p><em>Ellen Elster, July 2013</em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/1" hreflang="en">Right to Refuse to Kill</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/466" hreflang="en">feminist</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/273" hreflang="en">gender and militarism</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=22085&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="2nlpHIue8xLsuBv2vOt8bdASev92nO5OFfCrq933rzc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 25 Jul 2013 10:20:34 +0000 HBrock 22085 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/ConscriptWomenNorway#comments Conscription extended to women in Norway https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2013/conscription-extended-women-norway <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--22010.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="22010" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 27 Jun 2013</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Norway has joined Israel and Eritrea, becoming one of a handful of countries worldwide that conscript women.</p> <p>The bill was framed as an equality measure, an official announcement in English reading '100 years after Norway introduced full voting rights for women, the Norwegian Parliament voted to adopt compulsory conscription for women as well as men with an overwhelming majority', and terming it 'gender-neutral conscription'. It continues 'We do not adopt conscription for women because we need more soldiers, but because we need the best, no matter who they may be, says the Defence Minister, and adds: - High-tech equipment alone does not make for a modern military; we also need a modern and diverse organisation with different people, skills and perspectives.' Norway’s Defence Minister, Mrs. Anne-Grete Stroem-Erichsen called it 'an historic day for equality and for our armed forces'. </p> <p>This measure has been discussed in Norway for some years (see our <a href="//wri-irg.org/node/1169" target="”_blank”">July 2007 CO Update</a>).</p> <p>Such actions have the impact of giving the military a sheen of equality. Women involved in military institutions are much more likely to face sexual abuse and harassment than their males colleagues. Their inclusion does not undermine the army's violence or deeply masculinist nature. Read The Broken Rifle edition on <a href="//www.wri-irg.org/system/files/public_files/br85-en.pdf" target="”_blank”">Gender and Militarism</a> for a deeper look at these issues. There will also be an article looking at the decision, written by a feminist in Norway, in the next edition of The Broken Rifle. Sign up here to receive this: <a href="http://lists.wri-irg.org/sympa/info/thebrokenrifle">http://lists.wri-irg.org/sympa/info/thebrokenrifle</a></p> <p><em>Sources</em>: The Norway Post, <a href="//www.norwaypost.no/index.php/news/latest-news/28645-norway-adopts-conscription-for-both-men-and-women" target="”_blank”">Norway adopts conscription for both men and women</a>, 16 June 2013; norway.org.uk, <a href="//www.norway.org.uk/News_and_events/Current-Affairs/Norway-extends-compulsory-military-service-to-women/" target="”_blank”">Norway extends compulsory military service to women</a>, 20 June 2013; The Telegraph, <a href="//www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/10124998/Norway-votes-to-extend-conscription-to-women.html" target="”_blank”">Norway votes to extend conscription to women</a>, 17 June 2013.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/273" hreflang="en">gender and militarism</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=22010&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="A8KjvwmwF2hoDDFWbCXlGWU6Y78Ro8U80TKFouoGJGY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 27 Jun 2013 10:29:38 +0000 HBrock 22010 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2013/conscription-extended-women-norway#comments Norway: end of substitute service for conscientious objectors https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2011/norway-end-substitute-service-conscientious-objectors <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--13541.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="13541" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 10 Aug 2011</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Norwegian government announced on 1 July 2011 that substitute service for conscientious objectors will end later this year. According to Minister of Justice Knut Storberget, the reform will mean that conscientious objectors to military service will in the future no longer be called up for a substitute service, but will simply be exempted from military service. According to the press release, there has been an ever decreasing number of applicants for conscientious objection in recent years, from over 3,000 applicants about 10 years ago to the current level of about 350. Meanwhile the need of the Armed Forces for military personnel has been declining. Accordingly, Norway has no need to send conscientious objectors to a substitute service, said Justice Minister Knut Storberget. A draft bill was submitted for public consultation in July.</p> <p>In anticipation of the new bill, conscientious objectors will no longer be called up for substitute service. Those already serving will however continue to serve, although the service might be shortened for those who would need to serve beyond 1 January 2012.</p> <p>According to a 2005 report by the Quaker Council for European Affairs, Norway's armed forces comprise 19,000 troops, including 11,300 conscripts.</p> <p>Every year, approx. 32,000 young men reach conscription age. According to the website of the Norwegian Armed Forces, in 2008, 10,151 did their national service, out of which 803 were female. However, for women military service is not compulsory, but voluntary. This means that out of 32,000 young men reaching conscription age only about 30% would be called up for compulsory military service.</p> <p>The Norwegian Armed Forces have to some degree followed the trend to increase recruitment of volunteers. In the official document "Norwegian Defence 2008", it was stated regarding personnel policy: "<em>The highest priority will be given to the recruiting of the most suitable young people either for regular service on contract or as junior or full career officers.</em>" The updated 2011 document states: "<em>The personnel structure of the armed Forces is changing to include more service personnel on regular engagements and further development of the new category of junior officers. Continuing efforts are being made to provide horizontal career paths with greater continuity for regular officers and other ranks.</em>"</p> <p>Following a discussion about conscription of women (see <a href="/node/1169">CO-Update No 31</a>, August 2007), it has been made compulsory for women to attend an interview with the National Service Administration from 2010 on. The Ministry of Defence stated in Norwegian Defence 2011: "<em>The introduction of obligatory interviews for young women in 2010 means that the overall number of young men and women attending initial interviews is increasing to some 60,000 each year. Introduced at the same time is a new two-part interview session of which Part 1 consists of an Internet-based self-declaration. This initial information enables the recruiting authorities to select those, about 25,000, to be called in for Part 2 of the process which will take place at an interview centre. The Armed Forces have been set an annual quota of a minimum of 1,500 women to undergo initial military service with effect from the batch born in 1992.</em>"</p> <p><em>Sources</em>: Ministry of Justice and the Police: <a href="http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/jd/pressesenter/pressemeldinger/2011/slutt-pa-siviltjeneste.html?id=651143">Slutt på siviltjeneste</a>, Press release, No.: 62, 01 July 2011; Siviltjeneste: <a href="http://www.siviltjenesten.no/OM-SIVILTJENESTEN/Aktuelt/Omorganisering-i-Siviltjenesten/">Informasjon om den sivile verneplikten</a>, accessed 10 August 2011; Quaker Council for European Affairs/War Resisters' International: <a href="/programmes/world_survey/country_report/en/Norway">Country report and updates: Norway</a>, 2005; Norwegian Armed Forces: <a href="http://mil.no/organisation/personnel/Pages/personnel.aspx">Personnel</a>, accessed 10 August 2011; Norwegian Ministry of Defence: <a href="http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FD/Dokumenter/Fakta2008_eng.pdf">Norwegian Defence 2008</a>; Norwegian Ministry of Defence: <a href="http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FD/Dokumenter/Fakta2011_engelsk_korr-4-mai-2011.pdf">Norwegian Defence 2011</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=13541&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="W24VGncPVbivhMN8Cwr7d1qIB9rCpT3DOMgxDEZ68Nc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 10 Aug 2011 15:30:53 +0000 warresisters 13541 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2011/norway-end-substitute-service-conscientious-objectors#comments Compulsory military service for women in Norway? https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2007/compulsory-military-service-women-norway <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--1169.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="1169" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Aug 2007</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p></p><p>"Compulsory military service for women may be introduced already in the next parliamentary period, says Defence Minister Anne-Grete Stroem-Erichsen to NRK. In her opinion, the present system for national service is outdated, and she is working to make system gender neutral.</p> <p></p><p>The proposed new law covering general conscription for both men and women will be presented to Parliament (Storting) next spring. If the law is passed, today's 15-year-old girls may be called up for national service at the age of 18.</p> <p></p><p><i>Source:</i> The Norway Post, <a href="http://www.norwaypost.no/cgi-bin/norwaypost/imaker?id=88952">6 July 2007</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=1169&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="SmrCsDSTRwv8poU_6wMq5cVdcq0689IP9iOwGSoRPKc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 31 Jul 2007 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 1169 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2007/compulsory-military-service-women-norway#comments Norway https://wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Norway <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--4279.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="4279" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 15 May 2005</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><blockquote><p>As published in <em>The Right to Conscientious Objection in Europe</em>, Quaker Council for European Affairs, 2005.</p></blockquote> <p></p><ul><li><a href="#Heading2">Conscription</a></li><li><a href="#Heading3">Conscientious objection</a></li></ul> <p></p><h3><a name="Heading2" id="Heading2">Conscription</a></h3><p>Conscription is enshrined in Article 109 of the Constitution and is further regulated by the 1953 General Compulsory Service Act (29/1953).</p><p>The length of military service is 12 months. In practice, it is regularly shortened to 8 or 9 months.</p><p>All men between the ages of 18 and 44 are liable for military service. In practice, men are seldom called up after the age of 30.</p><p>A small number of conscripts serve in the National Guards. They serve for 6 months, but have to do an annual two weeks' reservist training up to the age of 44. Conscripts who have performed regular military service also have reservist obligations up to the age of 44, but are in practice seldom called up for reservist training.<a name="fnB0" href="#fn0" id="fnB0">[1]</a></p><p></p><p>In recent years, Norway has reviewed its defence policy and decided to keep conscription in place. Apart from the Green Party, there seems to be political consensus to maintain conscription in the future. According to the Ministry of Defence "conscription will remain a pillar of Norwegian defence".<a name="fnB1" href="#fn1" id="fnB1">[2]</a></p><h4>Statistics</h4><p>The armed forces comprise 19,000 troops, including 11,300 conscripts. Every year, approx. 32,000 young men reach conscription age.</p><h3><a name="Heading3" id="Heading3">Conscientious objection</a></h3><h4>Legal basis</h4><p>The right to conscientious objection has been legally recognized since 1922. Its present legal basis is the 1965 Law on Exemption of Military Service for Reasons of Personal Conviction.</p><h4>Scope</h4><p>Both religious and non-religious grounds for conscientious objection are legally recognized. According to Article 1 of the 1965 Law: "If there is any reason to suppose that a conscript is unable to perform military service of any kind without coming into conflict with his serious conviction, he shall be exempted from such service by the competent Ministry or by judgement pronounced pursuant to the provisions of this Act".</p><p>Opposition to the use of nuclear weapons has also been included as a legal ground for conscientious objection. According to an amendment made to the 1965 law in 1990, beliefs "related to the use of weapons of mass destruction as they might be expected to be used in the present day defence" may be seen as a legal ground for conscientious objection.<a name="fnB2" href="#fn2" id="fnB2">[3]</a> Norway is in fact the only European country where opposition to nuclear weapons is recognized as a legal ground for conscientious objection to military service.</p><h4>Time limits</h4><p>There are no time limits for submitting CO applications. When a serving conscript makes an application, he needs to be discharged from the armed forces within four weeks. During these four weeks, he will not have to carry arms.<a name="fnB3" href="#fn3" id="fnB3">[4]</a></p><p>It is not clear if there are legal provisions for the right to conscientious objection for professional soldiers. A report published by the Council of Europe in 2001 suggests that the right to conscientious objection does not apply to professional soldiers.<a name="fnB4" href="#fn4" id="fnB4">[5]</a> According to another source, professional soldiers may claim the right to conscientious objection and should, in this case, be released from duty. No further information is available about an application procedure for professional soldiers and there are actually no known cases of professional soldiers seeking discharge from the armed forces because of conscientious objection.<a name="fnB5" href="#fn5" id="fnB5">[6]</a></p><h4>Procedure</h4><p>Applications have to be made to the Ministry of Justice. Applications can be made by signing a standard form that is available from the Ministry. Since 2001, no personal interview takes place during the application procedure. Consequently, applications are almost automatically granted.<a name="fnB6" href="#fn6" id="fnB6">[7]</a></p><h4>Substitute service</h4><p>The length of substitute service is 13 months, which is one month longer than military service.</p><p>Substitute service is administered by the Ministry of Justice. According to Article 10 of the 1965 Law, substitute service "must have a civilian character and must be commanded by civilians. It should have no connection with any military establishment or activity". Substitute service may be performed in government institutions, such as hospitals, but also in non-governmental organizations. A large number of COs do their substitute service in the VOKT, an educational programme on violence prevention in junior high schools and high schools. In 2004, 400 COs were employed in this programme, making it in fact the largest employer of COs.</p><p>The salary of COs is paid for by the Ministry of Justice. Employing organizations need to pay a sum of 18.3 Euros per day to the Ministry, which makes it quite attractive for organizations to employ COs. This money is given to UNICEF, meaning that employers of COs largely pay for Norway's regular contribution to UNICEF.</p><p>After completing substitute service, COs have reservist duties in the Civilian Defence Force and may be called up for an annual two weeks' reservist training. The Civilian Defence Force is aimed at supporting civilians during wartime. Its training includes training in first-aid, self-defence and administering logistics, but it does not include training with arms.<a name="fnB7" href="#fn7" id="fnB7">[8]</a></p><h4>Practice</h4><p>During the last ten years, the number of CO applications has been relatively stable at between 2,000 and 2,500 per year. In recent years, the following number of CO applications has been granted:<a name="fnB8" href="#fn8" id="fnB8">[9]</a></p><table width="50%" bgcolor="#ccffff"><br /> <tr> <td>2001 </td> <td>2,364</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2002</td> <td>2,150</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2003</td> <td>2,209</td> </tr> </table> <p></p><p>Since the abolition of personal interviews in 2001, almost all applications are granted. It is believed that an application is only rejected if the applicant has been convicted for a violent offence. In 2002, three applications were rejected because the applicants had been convicted for a criminal offence in the past.<a name="fnB9" href="#fn9" id="fnB9">[10]</a></p><p>The government has set a maximum on the number of COs that can be employed per year at 1,490. As the number of recognized COs is higher, this means that a considerable number of COs cannot start their substitute service. Consequently, between 500 and 1,000 COs per year are not called up for substitute service and are in practice exempt from serving altogether.<a name="fnB10" href="#fn10" id="fnB10">[11]</a></p><h4>Total objectors</h4><p>Each year, between 100 and 200 conscripts refuse to perform both military and substitute service. They are usually sentenced to "enforced completion of the service", which means that they are forced to perform a substitute service consisting of regular substitute service duties. This is mainly relevant for Jehovah's Witnesses. They do not want to apply for substitute service but they will comply with doing substitute service if they are sentenced to perform it.</p><p>Approximately 150 Jehovah's Witnesses per year are sentenced to enforced service. <a name="fnB11" href="#fn11" id="fnB11">[12]</a></p><p>Total objectors who do not comply with the sentence of enforced substitute service are usually sentenced to a fine and three months' imprisonment under Article 35 of the Military Penal Law for "unauthorized absence from military service". The Military Penal Law envisages a renewed call-up after release and a repeated three months' imprisonment. In practice, the second sentence is often pardoned. In 2003, ten total objectors were believed to have been sentenced to imprisonment.<a name="fnB12" href="#fn12" id="fnB12">[13]</a></p> <p></p><h3>Notes</h3><p class="footnote"><a name="fn0" href="#fnB0" id="fn0">[1]</a> Information provided by Sivilarbeider (Norwegian Union of Conscientious Objectors), August 2004.<br /><a name="fn1" href="#fnB1" id="fn1">[2]</a> Norwegian Ministry of Defence: The further modernisation of the Norwegian Armed Forces 2005-2008, 12 March 2004, <em>www.odin.dep.no</em><br /><a name="fn2" href="#fnB2" id="fn2">[3]</a> War Resisters' International: Refusing to bear arms - A world survey on conscription and conscientious objection to military service, 1998.<br /><a name="fn3" href="#fnB3" id="fn3">[4]</a> Sivilarbeider (2004).<br /><a name="fn4" href="#fnB4" id="fn4">[5]</a> Exercise of the right of conscientious objection to military service in Council of Europe member states, Report Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, Doc. 8809 (Revised), 4 May 2001.<br /><a name="fn5" href="#fnB5" id="fn5">[6]</a> Sivilarbeider (2004).<br /><a name="fn6" href="#fnB6" id="fn6">[7]</a> Before 2000, the application procedure could be rather strict, as approx. 30 per cent of applications were rejected (War Resisters' International 1998).<br /><a name="fn7" href="#fnB7" id="fn7">[8]</a> Sivilarbeider (2004).<br /><a name="fn8" href="#fnB8" id="fn8">[9]</a> Norwegian Ministry of Defence: Norwegian Defence Facts and Figures 2003, <em>www.odin.dep.no</em>. European Bureau for Conscientious Objection: New challenges for peace: From the global to the local view, Strasbourg 9-16 March 2003 (seminar report).<br /><a name="fn9" href="#fnB9" id="fn9">[10]</a> European Bureau for Conscientious Objection (2003).<br /><a name="fn10" href="#fnB10" id="fn10">[11]</a> Sivilarbeider (2004).<br /><a name="fn11" href="#fnB11" id="fn11">[12]</a> Kampanjen Mot Verneplikt (Campaign against Conscription), <em>www.pluto.no/doogie/ga/huset.kmv</em><br /><a name="fn12" href="#fnB12" id="fn12">[13]</a> Sivilarbeider (2004)</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4279&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="iPB4wn5EaLCmC0VGMx4mZjj-A5PQOiwIDXN5SoqdUCE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sun, 15 May 2005 00:00:00 +0000 qcea 4279 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Norway#comments Johansen v. Norway (Application No. 10600/83) https://wri-irg.org/en/story/1985/johansen-v-norway-application-no-1060083 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--20937.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="20937" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 14 Oct 1985</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>(...)</p> <p>The applicant is a Norwegian citizen born in 1956 and resident at Ise in Norway. (...)</p> <p>Being a pacifist, the applicant is opposed to military service, and he also objects to civilian service, since the purpose of such service is, in his opinion, to uphold respect for military service.</p> <p>(...)</p> <p>The Commission also considers that this obligation is an obligation that is fully compatible with the Convention. The Convention does not oblige the Contracting States to make available for conscientious objectors to military service any substitute civilian service. In States which recognise conscientious objectors and provide for alternative service it is fully compatible with the Convention to require objectors to perform alternative service. This is clear from the text of Article 4 para 3 (b) of the Convention which specifically sets out that service exacted from conscientious objectors instead of compulsory military service is not to be regarded as "forced or compulsory labour". From this provision it is clear that an obligation to perform civilian service is in principle compatible with the Convention.</p> <p>(...)</p> <p>The applicant has alleged a breach of Article 9 of the Convention, which guarantees to everyone the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.</p> <p>When interpreting this provision, the Commission has taken into consideration Article 4 para. 3(b) of the Convention which inter alia provides that "service exacted instead of compulsory military service" should not be included in the concept of "forced or compulsory labour". Since the Convention thus expressly recognises that conscientious objectors may be required to perform civilian service it is clear that the Convention does not guarantee a right to be exempted from civilian service (see No. 7705/76, Dec. 5.7.77, D.R. 9 p. 196). The Convention does not prevent a state from taking measures to enforce performance of civilian service, or from imposing sanctions on those who refuse such service.</p> <p>The Commission refers to its finding under para. 1 and concludes that the applicant's detention cannot be considered contrary to Article 9 of the Convention.</p> <p>It follows that this aspect of the application is manifestly ill-founded within the meaning of Article 27 para. 2 of the Convention.</p> <p>(...)</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--upload--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--upload--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--upload.html.twig * field--default--upload--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--upload.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--upload--story.html.twig * field--node--upload.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--upload.html.twig * field--file.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-upload field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Attached file</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'file_link' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/file/file-link.html.twig' --> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="http://updates.wri-irg.org/sites/default/files/public_files/Johansen%20v.%20Norway%20%2810600-83%29.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=672445" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">Johansen v. Norway (10600-83).pdf</a></span><span class="file-size">656.68 KB</span></span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/file/file-link.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/266" hreflang="en">Norway</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/64" hreflang="en">International Law</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-institutions--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-institutions.html.twig * field--expert--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-institutions.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--node--field-institutions.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-institutions.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Institutions</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/453" hreflang="en">European Commission of Human Rights</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=20937&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="BMOdpU1olXN8fEmmE0ey5oGgaSO4lgMCOYpXEKcoxoY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sun, 13 Oct 1985 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 20937 at http://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/1985/johansen-v-norway-application-no-1060083#comments