Iran https://updates.wri-irg.org/en en Shares in arms companies increase after assassination of Qassem Soleimani https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/shares-arms-companies-increase-after-assassination-qassem-soleimani <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42003.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42003" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 13 Jan 2020</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Shares in some of the world’s biggest arms companies rose to a combined total of nearly $14bn in the wake of the US assassination of the Iranian commander Qassem Soleimani, with investors expecting a wave of fresh orders. Analysis by the “i” magazine showed that in just 24 hours after the drone strike that killed Soleimani, <a href="https://inews.co.uk/news/long-reads/iran-crisis-top-arms-firms-soars-us-iran-standoff-weaponry-orders-1362138">arms companies had added $10bn</a> to their share value.</p> <p>Lockheed Martin saw its shares rise by over $4bn in a single day, to $116bn, while the value of the Uks biggest arms company, BAE Systems, rose by nearly £1bn. Northrop Grumman’s share price increased <a href="https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/stocks-fly-high-us-arms-companies-amid-heightened-tensions-iran">by over 5%</a>.</p> <p>The value of shares in the Russian company <a href="/en/story/2019/war-profiteer-month-almaz-antey">Almaz-Antey</a> also rose. Almaz-Antey produces the state-of-the-art S400 air defence system recently sold to Turkey and sought by the Iranian military – though the sale was rejected by Russia in <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-05-30/russia-rejected-iran-s-400-missiles-request-amid-gulf-tension">May 2019</a>.</p> <p>In December 2019, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) <a href="https://www.sipri.org/media/press-release/2019/global-arms-industry-rankings-sales-46-cent-worldwide-and-us-companies-dominate-top-5">released figures</a> that show the sale of arms and military services in 2018 totally $420bn, a 4.6% increase on 2018. US companies dominated the top 100, with just five American companies making up 35% of the sales of the world’s 100 biggest arms companies.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/216" hreflang="en">United States of America</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/185" hreflang="en">Russian Federation</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/301" hreflang="en">Lockheed Martin</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/282" hreflang="en">BAE Systems</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/329" hreflang="en">Northrop Grumman</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42003&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="DhC5dDnFoOycULKu1YRPMLVNQFNb2Vf1lDbGX1ohGVE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 13 Jan 2020 11:50:35 +0000 Andrew 42003 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/shares-arms-companies-increase-after-assassination-qassem-soleimani#comments Against war with Iran, against WWIII https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/against-war-iran-against-wwiii <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42007.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42007" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2020-01/81886764_2864834976870701_8809158669204717568_o_0.jpg?itok=e_cdBzoy 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2020-01/81886764_2864834976870701_8809158669204717568_o_0.jpg?itok=LHUhWb73 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2020-01/81886764_2864834976870701_8809158669204717568_o_0.jpg?itok=LHUhWb73" alt="WRL Statement poster - An image of a rose with a message of solidarity written alongside it" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 14 Jan 2020</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p dir="ltr"><em>This statement was originally published by <a href="https://www.warresisters.org/against-war-iran-against-wwiii">War Resisters League</a>, one of WRI's affiliates in the USA, and endorsed by WRI Executive Committee.</em></p> <p dir="ltr">Wednesday, January 8th, 2020</p> <p>Dear friends,</p> <p>Early Friday morning, in an act of imperial power and disregard for international law, the US assassinated Iran’s General Qassem Soleimani and Kata’ib Hezbollah’s Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis at Baghdad International Airport via targeted drone strike and immediately <a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/military/u-s-sending-thousands-more-troops-mideast-after-baghdad-attack-n1110081">deployed more troops</a> to the region for “protection.” That same day, police departments around the US  <a href="https://twitter.com/hayesdavenport/status/1212979754535489537">indicated</a> plans of increasing local surveillance, and on Sunday Trump “vowed to hit 52 Iranian targets very hard” while dozens of Iranians were reported <a href="https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/iranians-detained-asked-political-views-border-cair-200105234042589.html">detained</a> at the US border and airports within the country. On Monday, <a href="https://truthout.org/articles/iraqs-vote-to-kick-out-u-s-troops-reflects-growing-anti-imperialist-movement/">Iraqi parliament voted to kick out all foreign troops</a>, and on Tuesday <a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/irans-news-parliment-approves-bill-designating-u-s-military-terrorist-organizations-qassem-soleimani/?ftag=CNM-00-10aab6a&amp;linkId=80231175&amp;fbclid=IwAR1gHQVPb87FdSS1S6zn2TVdjfe-FC-Qwp3Yt1x-hVkHWi9_AGbH399w-is">Iran’s parliament voted to recognize all US military forces as terrorists</a> and by Tuesday evening <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/middleeast/live-news/us-iran-soleimani-tensions-intl-01-07-20">Iran launched missiles at Al-Asad airbase</a> in retaliation, reportedly killing Iraqis.</p> <p>The US assassination of Soleimani marks a serious escalation of danger on many fronts: a sharp escalation of an already on-going geopolitical and proxy war between the United States and Iran, an increase of the United States profiling, surveilling, and detaining Iranians domestically, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/06/politics/us-troops-iraq/index.html">continued disregard for the demands of Iraqis</a> who want the US and Iran out of their homeland, and what appears to be the final nail in the coffin of the Iran Nuclear Deal (a multi-state effort by the Joint Committee Plan of Action [JPCOA]), which the US left in 2018 and Iran <a href="https://www.politico.com/news/2020/01/05/iran-abandons-nuclear-deal-killing-soleimani-094197">announced</a> it would no longer abide by this past Sunday.</p> <p><strong>Therefore, we raise our voices calling for a de-escalation of tension between the two nation-states, which must include US congressional checks on executive power, a total lifting of sanctions on Iran, and protection of the rights of Iranians in the United States - including a lifting of the Muslim Ban, which affects multiple countries including Iran.</strong></p> <p>As the Kenyan proverb goes: when elephants fight, it is the grass that suffers. We recognize that this on-going geopolitical and proxy war between the United States (a global imperial power) and Iran (a regional imperial power) will continue to lead to everyday Syrians, Iraqis, Afghans, and Iranians suffering. Already, the two states have been advancing their own agenda and engaging in proxy to each other in both Syria and Iraq. Since August 2014, <a href="https://airwars.org/conflict/coalition-in-iraq-and-syria/">the US-Led Coalition has killed 1,359 civilians in Syria and Iraq</a>, and engaged in battle over Raqqa and Mosul, causing mass destruction in both cities. In Syria, General Qassem Soleimani was responsible for providing militia power, like that of Kata’ib Hezbollah, to support Assad’s war on Syrian civilians— which is why we understand many Syrians feel some relief that a major material and political ally of Bashar al Assad is no longer alive, and we also recognize that true justice would have been putting war criminals, including Assad, Soleimani, Muhandis, and Trump on trial. And it was the United States who invaded and occupied Iraq in 2003, <a href="https://www.iraqbodycount.org/">killing over 207,000 civilians</a>. It was the US invasion and occupation which created the conditions for regional power struggles to be played out on Iraqi soil, with the people of Iraq paying the largest price.</p> <p><strong>WRL has long recognized the need for an antiwar movement that takes into account the multiple imperial actors in the world, the changing nature of warfare, and the ways in which war is becoming invisibilized. </strong>Knowing how actors of US imperialism often point out the crimes of other states to justify their own, we focus on uplifting diaspora antiwar leadership within the United States as a means to dismantle the white supremacy inherent with imperial finger-wagging. In 2014, we worked with Havaar, an Iran solidarity initiative, to raise political awareness and call for an end to sanctions on Iran. Previous WRL organizer Ali Issa organized the <a href="https://iraqitransnationalcollective.org/en/mission/">Iraqi Transnational Collective</a> to “connect Iraqi communities working towards an equal and just Iraq free of oppression.” And our Resisting Airwars program was designed specifically to connect and uplift SWANA* diaspora voices from across the region and will be convening a group of leaders with connections to Iran, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Yemen, Libya, and Kashmir this weekend to strategize towards a future where all wars have ended.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>WRL stands with the people of Iran, who have suffered from US economic sanctions and domestic repression. WRL stands by the Iranian community in the United States, who have been unjustly profiled for decades.</strong></p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>WRL stands with the people of Iraq and the October Revolution, a popular anti-imperialist movement reclaiming Iraq for its people and standing against the US occupation that destroyed the country and against Iran’s current influence over Iraqi politics.</strong></p> <p><strong>WRL stands with the people of Syria, who for the past decade have experienced an international proxy war akin to a “World War III” in their country, though this is generally lost in the United States when fears of a new World War III arise.</strong></p> <p dir="ltr">Now is the time to raise our voices for a de-escalation between the United States and Iran, uplift Iranian, Iraqi, and Syrian antiwar leadership within the United States, and increase our efforts to agitate against the US war machine.</p> <p dir="ltr">In solidarity,</p> <p>War Resisters League</p> <p>*Southwest Asia/North Africa</p> <hr /> <h1 dir="ltr">Action steps and resources</h1> <h2>Direct action + counter recruitment + petitions</h2> <p><a href="https://www.warresisters.org/organizing-effective-actions">Organizing Effective Actions by WRL</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.warresisters.org/counter-recruitment-0">Learn the essentials of counter-recruitment and get involved</a><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3117%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313129000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHLvtLt5Nmqy5hGZRqMmMtC2hq-lQ" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3117&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">.</a></p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3118%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313129000&amp;usg=AFQjCNF7RSK2KXNGdv_zsu2jLi0e4UkU0g" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3118&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Find your local recruitment centers</a> and <a href="https://www.warresisters.org/planning-nonviolent-campaigns">organize a direct action</a><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3119%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313129000&amp;usg=AFQjCNG8JIGfsZJpR5GvRaCs5ICzKktJMA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3119&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">.</a></p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3120%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313129000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGnLiEg8_1MOu8UZYOMddcND4k20g" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3120&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Sign Win Without War’s petition.</a></p> <p>If you or someone you know is in the military and considering going AWOL, becoming a conscientious objector, or withdrawing consent in some other way - call the <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3121%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEPYp6GIgZCtRgb3mzmBZE_eHSmdg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3121&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">GI Rights Hotline</a> at 1-877-447-4487. It’s free, confidential counseling &amp; info from volunteer civilians.</p> <h2>Rallies</h2> <p>January 9th - National<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3122%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNFSZHeldylyOxrVKPPTYYPvrRIeuA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3122&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">No War With Iran - Day of Action (Find Your City Here)</a></p> <p>January 12th - Los Angeles<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3123%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNExm2FDdsfRPS95Hk01MOufIMc4fg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3123&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">No War No Sanctions No Ban - SWANA LA</a></p> <p>January 25th - International<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3124%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGh4a6muLOa9_ivtPrUm81yETVFaw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3124&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">No War With Iran - Day of Action (Find Your City Here)</a></p> <h2>Who to follow on social media</h2> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3125%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNH-vMgGvDlniwll6PoiweXlAPPNdw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3125&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Mosul Eye</a> (Iraq)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3126%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHsMWvxDRHNb62kw3VXWiqxJBY-wA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3126&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Zahra Ali</a> (Iraq)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3127%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGcutodpiCXFsCS8ThZfVgFwG5yTg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3127&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Maral Karimi</a> (Iran)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3128%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNH_33ErwcgJjBNXePPAyKpIF-uScg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3128&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Rahman Bouzari</a> (Iran)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3129%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGphF1k2ZG752LRDXIM_TFl3xospw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3129&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Kamran Matin</a> (Kurdistan)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3130%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHYZ8QJYOjv7DsW8SztX_t3j8uMQw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3130&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Harun Arsalai</a> (Afghanistan) <br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3131%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNF_VADbXnL-V4ZLoQ7LX0ywjQcLmw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3131&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Ramah Kudaimi</a> (Syria)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3132%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHxQp1fZQiVU4sVVu6SmaGZ4jOq1w" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3132&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Leila al Shami</a> (Syria)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3133%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGoQQVnrbGyCbwjsz7gWsXyrC2keA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3133&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Waad Al-Kateab</a> (Syria)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3134%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGo4cn8ZjaavWmxGXRtFmdKzVJVJA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3134&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Joey Ayoub</a> (Syria/Global Antifascism)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3135%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNESHT4g2ZFVk75LB6d_aJXIuPhNVg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3135&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Rasha Al Aqeedi</a> (Iraq)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3136%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNG9N7fh9XADadjWdF6VkpDftcdzxg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3136&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Gissou Nia</a> (Iran)<br /> <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3137%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNG6IA0gfViDm8rxM_sXU7tXpvy56g" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3137&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Kareem Shaheen</a> (Syria)<br /> <a href="https://twitter.com/vahid_yucesoy">Vahid Yucesoy</a> (Iran)</p> <h2>Further reading and analysis</h2> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3138%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHzKDcjJS8MoghhAB7pQc6gyWbhPA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3138&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Oppose U.S. and Iran War by Showing Solidarity with Uprisings in the MENA Region by the Alliance of MENA Socialists </a></p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3139%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNE9ehw6ZLuvT-SxHH6N6TXHMv8sOg" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3139&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">The Democratic Party’s Iran Warhawks Who Fly Under the Radar</a> by Sarah Lazare (InTheseTimes)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3140%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNF9f4NiBK5FagSv8Acdt8WMw7hEZw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3140&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">To Stop Trump’s War With Iran, We Must Also Confront the Democrats Who Laid the Groundwork</a> by Sarah Lazare (InTheseTimes)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3141%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHbTSSTY5KkPNWBUpEwLnHS1_bVeQ" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3141&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">The 2020s Has To Be the Decade We Stop Climate Change—Not Start Another War</a> by Sarah Lazare (InTheseTimes)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3142%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNG-8xOkj3WP9wQlCmkx-dqCZcYsfw" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3142&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">What do the Iranian people want?</a> by Rahman Bouzari (Al Jazeera)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3143%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEXBelZN_HeeWDimLSW7upKhw6XBA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3143&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">What do Iraqi Protestors Want? by Raed Jarrar</a> (Common Dreams)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3144%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHXFWnaTSDPgZeh5WAV6NGk-u_W1A" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3144&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">An Iranian Crisis of Representation</a> by Rahman Bouzari (OpenDemocracy)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3145%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHfHYTqiNrlZKqoGYmiPLjSdwsSEA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3145&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Iraqis Demand a Country</a> by Zahra Ali (MERIP)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3146%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGL_79T8I3nW_NSOiOxPo-jpUNYiA" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3146&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Killing Sulaimani- How The Butcher of the People Became an Anti-Imperialist Hero</a> by Hawzhin Azeez</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3147%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGjShx2TjicEBn6zuFFH8rTAVRUew" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3147&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Trump’s Killing of Qassem Soleimani Means “Rules of the Game” Have Totally Changed in Middle East with Ghaith Abdul-Ahad</a> (Democracy Now)</p> <p><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u%3D3148%26qid%3D3268799&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1578587313130000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGyGsR7QbeMv4borvrDDL8wYwzPew" href="https://www.warresisters.org/sites/all/modules/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=3148&amp;qid=3268799" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Soleimani in Syria: A legacy of death and devastation</a> (Al-Jumhuriya)</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/wri-statement" hreflang="en">WRI Statement</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/216" hreflang="en">United States of America</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/125" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42007&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="qQxGmvWHyzZEV0upEihNMe1uLCb2bAgnqGbSFydIFt8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 14 Jan 2020 09:40:37 +0000 Andrew 42007 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/against-war-iran-against-wwiii#comments The Kwerekwere are stealing our jobs! Instead, stop the wars… https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2015/kwerekwere-are-stealing-our-jobs-instead-stop-wars <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--24530.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="24530" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 28 Apr 2015</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><em>Terry Crawford-Browne</em></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><em>Terry Crawford-Browne is a former international banker who became a peace activist during the 1980s. He lives in Cape Town.</em></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Renewed xenophobic violence in South Africa has appalled the world. The violence is directed at black African refugees, not white beneficiaries of the past apartheid era, yet reminiscent of the apartheid era, the response of a bewildered government is to send the army into affected townships, rather than address the root causes of massive migrations in Africa.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">The Guardian newspaper reported in England “with every outbreak of xenophobic violence, the refrain is the same: ‘the kwerekwere (foreigners) are stealing our jobs. Shops are torched. Streets are barricaded... Mobs hound Somalis, Mozambicans, Zimbabweans, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis from their homes and businesses.”<sup><a name="sdendnote1anc" href="#sdendnote1sym" id="sdendnote1anc"><sup>i</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Millions of African refugees have literally walked to South Africa to escape wars inflicted upon their countries. These wars are compounded by political repression of dictatorships kept in office by the United States and the CIA. In 1961, the CIA orchestrated the murder of Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, and kept the kleptomaniac Joseph Mobutu in power until 1997. In April 2015, under the guise of a democratic election, the US helped to reinstate Nigeria’s former military dictator, Muhammadu Buhari.<sup><a name="sdendnote2anc" href="#sdendnote2sym" id="sdendnote2anc"><sup>ii</sup></a> </sup>Despite objections from almost all African countries, the US has established a military command termed AFRICOM. It is headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany because no country has allowed it to be based on the African continent. The “blow-back” consequences include huge numbers of refugees plus economic and political destabilisation of host countries.</p> <p>In South Africa, the number of Zimbabwean refugees is estimated at between one and four million people. The actual numbers are unknown, but it is possible that South Africa is hosting more refugees than any other country. Officially, the rate of unemployment in South Africa is 25% but, in reality, is about 40% and rises to 70% among young people. The kwerekwere, including huge numbers of Congolese refugees, tend to be better educated and are often self-employed. It is estimated that “only” 15% are unemployed. However, reprehensible xenophobic violence expresses misdirected and pent-up fury; in South Africa, impoverished victims of the apartheid system remain impoverished. Reflecting the government’s disastrous education, health and economic policies since 1994, the gap between rich and poor South Africans is wider than ever, and is the worst in the world. Food riots and crime driven by poverty rather than xenophobia per se have been the cause of many of the attacks on Somali shops.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><strong>Follow the money...</strong></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">The apartheid government and its army served as surrogate in southern Africa for the “first world” during the Cold War. The “frontline states” of Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and the Congo were deliberately destabilised at a cost of over one and a half million lives plus massive damage to economic infrastructure.<sup><a name="sdendnote3anc" href="#sdendnote3sym" id="sdendnote3anc"><sup>iii</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">In Congo, between five and ten million have subsequently died since 1997 in what is known as “Africa’s First World War”. The root cause of this violence is the looting of the Congo’s mineral wealth by “first world” corporations in collusion with European and North American governments.<sup><a name="sdendnote4anc" href="#sdendnote4sym" id="sdendnote4anc"><sup>iv</sup></a></sup> With former British Prime Minister Tony Blair as his friend and advisor, Rwanda’s dictator Paul Kagame has ruthlessly devastated the Congo.<sup><a name="sdendnote5anc" href="#sdendnote5sym" id="sdendnote5anc"><sup>v</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">In South Africa, almost three years have now elapsed since the August 2012 Marikana massacre at the Lonmin platinum mine, when 34 miners were murdered. The massacre exposed the incompetence and brutality of the police, but also the unconscionable greed of Lonmin’s British owners. The political complicity reaches to South Africa’s Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa, who is a shareholder and non-executive director, and a rand billionaire.<sup><a name="sdendnote6anc" href="#sdendnote6sym" id="sdendnote6anc"><sup>vi</sup></a> </sup>The resulting inquiry has revealed that Lonmin was engaged in extensive transfer pricing practices via Bermuda and other British “treasure island” tax havens to avoid payment of South African taxes. Instead of annual tax of over US$200 million for the years 2006 to 2008, these ploys enabled Lonmin to reduce its tax bill to US$8 million.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">These transfer payments deliberately drained Lonmin of funds that otherwise could have been used to pay living wages to illiterate and impoverished miners, who risk their lives underground to feed their families.<sup><a name="sdendnote7anc" href="#sdendnote7sym" id="sdendnote7anc"><sup>vii</sup></a></sup> Lonmin illustrates the economic plunder throughout the African continent repeatedly highlighted by the annual UN “Africa Progress” reports, which in 2013 focused on natural resources as a potential source of future economic prosperity. Natural resources, it noted, do not cause war, but weak government, under development and violent conflict are accentuated when foreign investors abuse their power by tax evasion and money laundering.<sup><a name="sdendnote8anc" href="#sdendnote8sym" id="sdendnote8anc"><sup>viii</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Like Lonmin, Shell’s extraction of oil from Nigeria since the 1950s has had devastating social a environmental consequences. The company has worked closely with successive Nigerian governments to suppress popular opposition to its presence. Oil has enriched a small elite and unleashed massive corruption, but the vast majority of 180 million Nigerians have been left in poverty. The activist Ken Saro-Wiwa was hanged in 1995 for his role in exposing Shell’s crimes. Litigation was filed against Shell in US under the Alien Tort Act<sup><a name="sdendnote9anc" href="#sdendnote9sym" id="sdendnote9anc"><sup>ix</sup></a></sup> but, just days before the case went to trial in 2009, it was settled out-of-court against payment to his family of US$15 million.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Buhari’s return to power raises the spectre of never-ending military coups, and of Nigeria reverting to a garrison state beholden to British and American banks and corporations. Will Nigeria become Africa’s next “failed state” and, if so, what will be the consequences for Europe?</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><strong>An Anglo-American obsession to control the world…</strong></p> <p>South Africa’s abhorrent migrant labour practices stem from the 19<sup>th</sup> century, but remain essentially unchanged. They can rightly be described as war profiteering. They originated with the British imperialist, Cecil Rhodes who made his fortune on South African diamonds and gold. Virtuously cloaked in the cause of world peace, Rhodes’s vision in 1877 was of the “English-speaking race so powerful and so overwhelming as to render all wars simply impossible.” In what was then deemed as the British civilising mission around the globe, Rhodes dreamt of:</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">“the extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands and especially the entire continent of Africa, the Holy Land and the valley of the Euphrates, the whole of South America, the islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, the seaboard of China and Japan, and the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire.”<sup><a name="sdendnote10anc" href="#sdendnote10sym" id="sdendnote10anc"><sup>x</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="fd432e05-d334-4fab-9580-b22fcb544f38" title="Statue of Cecil Rhodes is removed from Cape Town university" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/Goodbye_Cecil_John_Rhodes20_%2816481463023%29.home.jpg?itok=Gg28VnKq 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/Goodbye_Cecil_John_Rhodes20_%2816481463023%29.home.jpg?itok=Gg28VnKq" alt="" title="Statue of Cecil Rhodes is removed from Cape Town university" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> In pursuit of that vision, Rhodes Scholarships - established just before Rhodes died in Cape Town in 1902 - are arguably still the most prestigious, and are disproportionately allocated to Americans to anglicise them at Oxford University. Rhodes’s statue continued to occupy pride of place on the University of Cape Town campus. In March this year, students embarked on a “Rhodes Must Fall” campaign; their tactics were outrageous and smelly, but nonviolent and effective. Human faeces – shit collected from shacks inhabited by the poorest-of-the-poor – were poured over Rhodes’s statue, which within a month had symbolically 'fallen', and was removed. <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Nonetheless, South Africa and the world still suffer the consequences of imperialist wars of which Rhodes was the personification. The City of London is often described as the most corrupt square mile anywhere on the planet Earth.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><strong>International war profiteers…</strong></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Thousands of miles to the north of South Africa, thousands of African and Asian migrants are drowning in the Mediterranean Sea in desperate attempts to escape wars inflicted upon their countries and resultant destitution. The European Union’s “Fortress Europe” mentality treats refugees as criminals and as “the enemy.”<sup><a name="sdendnote11anc" href="#sdendnote11sym" id="sdendnote11anc"><sup>xi</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Libya (the land of my youth) is a country in turmoil because the US, Britain and France so mindlessly launched a war in 2011 after Muammar Gaddafi demanded payment in gold for Libya’s oil exports. Only months earlier, the British and French were competing to sell more arms to Libya and negotiate new oil concessions.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Likewise, the war against Iraq was launched in 2003 because Saddam Hussein had the audacity to demand payment for oil in euros instead of US dollars. During the 1980s - after the Iranian Revolution - Saddam dutifully served US and European interests in waging an eight year war against Iran – until the costs of their massive weapons supplies bankrupted Iraq.<sup><a name="sdendnote12anc" href="#sdendnote12sym" id="sdendnote12anc"><sup>xii</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="26ae7a1f-c7e4-40df-92ee-c284fbd073fd" title="British Prince Charles, in Saudi Arabia the day before a huge contract was signed with BAE Systems" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/alalam_635283980599225161_25f_4x3.home.jpg?itok=5Vas-YK_ 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/alalam_635283980599225161_25f_4x3.home.jpg?itok=5Vas-YK_" alt="" title="British Prince Charles, in Saudi Arabia the day before a huge contract was signed with BAE Systems" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> Prime Minister David Cameron and members of the British royal family repeatedly promote both arms exports and London’s banking services, ostensibly for job creation benefits.<sup> <a name="sdendnote13anc" href="#sdendnote13sym" id="sdendnote13anc"><sup>xiii</sup></a></sup> The reality is that both the British arms industry and its banking industry are virtually without regulation, are highly subsidised, and scream vociferously whenever regulation is suggested. <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">When Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah died earlier this year, politicians – including Cameron and President Barack Obama -- flocked to Riyadh to pay obeisance to what is arguably the world’s most barbaric regime. The House of Saud were bandits until elevated to royalty by the British and later, after the discovery of oil, adopted by the Americans. The US, British and German governments shamelessly pander to the power of Saudi money in the most depraved of Faustian bargains.</p> <p>In alliance with the US and Gulf state sheikdoms, Saudi Arabia has now launched a war against the people of Yemen. The violent consequences of fundamentalist Wahhabite Islamic theology – including Boko Haram in Nigeria, Al Shabaab in Somalia and Kenya, and ISIS in the Arab world -- almost all funded by Saudis at an estimated cost of US$130 billion, are daily evident on our television screens.<sup><a name="sdendnote14anc" href="#sdendnote14sym" id="sdendnote14anc"><sup>xiv</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Readers will recall that Blair in 2006 squelched a British Serious Fraud Office investigation into bribes paid by BAE to Saudi princes, insisting that the investigation threatened British national security. The reality is that Blair and BAE were negotiating an extension of the notoriously corrupt £43 billion Al Yamamah arms deal negotiated in 1985 between Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Saudi Prince Bandar. It transpired that BAE had paid bribes to Prince Bandar of over £1 billion with the assistance and complicity of the British Ministry of Defence, laundered through the US banking system<sup><a name="sdendnote15anc" href="#sdendnote15sym" id="sdendnote15anc"><sup>xv</sup></a></sup>. In addition, BAE gave him his own private Airbus as a birthday present.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">The Al Yamamah and subsequent Al Salam deals contain provisions which cannot be investigated or revealed in terms of Britain’s Official Secrets Act.<sup> <a name="sdendnote16anc" href="#sdendnote16sym" id="sdendnote16anc"><sup>xvi</sup></a></sup> Hopefully a future Julian Assange or Edward Snowden will blow the whistle on the details? What is known is that Saudi Arabia consigns huge quantities of oil to the Bank of England, which then distributes that oil to BP and to Shell.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">In terms of these arrangements, a massive fund administered by the Bank of England has accumulated, which is estimated to amount to US$150 billion. Its purpose is threefold:</p> <ul> <li> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">To guarantee British and US support for the Saudi royal family against domestic insurrection,</p> </li> <li> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">to ensure that international trade in oil is priced in US dollars, thus placing the world on a dollar standard and enabling the US to finance its unchallengeable military power, and</p> </li> <li> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">to fund covert destabilisation of resource-rich countries in Asia and Africa.</p> </li> </ul> <p>When communism no longer posed a threat, the war business created a new threat in Islam. As successor to the British Empire, US imperialism engages in deliberate war-mongering to promote an era of perpetual war in the 21<sup>st</sup> century. Bizarre realities include “Charlie Wilson’s war” in Afghanistan and the false-flag American alliance with Syrian Al Qaeda operatives in failed efforts to destroy the Assad regime preparatory to a joint Saudi and Israeli war against Iran.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">The tragic consequences of US destabilisation are now evident in chaos across Asia from Bangladesh to Syria, and across Africa from Somalia to Senegal. The underlying issue remains the plunder of natural resources, especially oil. It is encouraged by obscene expenditures on armaments. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Egypt and Iraq are expected to spend more than US$18 billion on armaments in 2015, up from US$12 billion in 2014.<sup><a name="sdendnote17anc" href="#sdendnote17sym" id="sdendnote17anc"><sup>xvii</sup></a></sup> The war business is plainly out of control.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><strong>Migration and xenophobia…</strong></p> <p>The blow-back costs of “first world” war-mongering are at last impacting even in Europe- as many as 1.6 million refugees from Syria and elsewhere are reportedly waiting in Turkey to enter Europe. To date, England has provided refuge for only 150 Syrian refugees, yet The Sun newspaper there disgracefully suggests that gunships should be deployed to sink refugee boats, and described the refugees themselves as “cockroaches.”<sup><a name="sdendnote18anc" href="#sdendnote18sym" id="sdendnote18anc"><sup>xviii</sup></a></sup> An estimated 300,000 refugees will apply for asylum in Germany during 2015 compared with 200,000 last year, and neo-Nazis are already fire-bombing refugee centres.<sup><a name="sdendnote19anc" href="#sdendnote19sym" id="sdendnote19anc"><sup>xix</sup></a></sup> That even the wealthiest country in Europe is struggling to deal with such modest numbers, it should be no surprise that the influx of millions of refugees has caused major difficulties in South Africa.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><strong>Will Africa be America’s next battleground?</strong></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">Somalia is a “failed state” as a direct consequence of the Cold War. Yet undeterred by dismal failures of US military interventions around the world since 1945, AFRICOM is making contingency plans on assumptions of an “Islamic State of Africa,” spread across the Continent. Billions of dollars have been pumped into construction of bases, weapons exports, proxy wars, assassinations, including mainly secret 674 military activities in Africa during 2014 in efforts to blunt Chinese investment and influence.<sup><a name="sdendnote20anc" href="#sdendnote20sym" id="sdendnote20anc"><sup>xx</sup></a></sup></p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA">The population of Africa is projected at one and a half billion people by 2025, about one-third of whom will be under the age of 18. Given their desperation, the risks of drowning in the Mediterranean will certainly not deter refugees from seeking a better life in Europe.</p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"> </p> <p align="LEFT" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Notes</span></p> <div id="sdendnote1"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote1sym" href="#sdendnote1anc" id="sdendnote1sym">i</a> Kate Wilkinson (2015, April 20). “South Africa’s Xenophobic Attacks: Are Migrants Really Stealing Jobs?” The Guardian.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote2"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote2sym" href="#sdendnote2anc" id="sdendnote2sym">ii</a> Thomas Gaist, (2015, Apirl 1). “Former Military Dictator Muhammadu Buhari Wins Nigerian Presidency,” Global Research.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote3"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote3sym" href="#sdendnote3anc" id="sdendnote3sym">iii</a> “South African Destabilisation: The Economic Cost of Frontline Resistance To Apartheid,” (1989), United Nations, New York.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote4"> <p><a name="sdendnote4sym" href="#sdendnote4anc" id="sdendnote4sym">iv</a> Jan Van Criegkinge, (2006, December 1). “ Congo (DRC) and War Profiteers: A Tragedy Forgotten by the Global Peace Movement,” War Profiteers News #4, London.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote5"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote5sym" href="#sdendnote5anc" id="sdendnote5sym">v</a> David Smith, (2012, October 10). Paul Kagame’s Rwanda: African Success Or Authoritarian State, The Guardian.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote6"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote6sym" href="#sdendnote6anc" id="sdendnote6sym">vi</a> “Miners Shot Down,” (2014). An 86 minute documentary film by Rehad Desai, Uhuru Productions (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg, <a href="http://www.minersshotdown.co.za">www.minersshotdown.co.za</a></p> </div> <div id="sdendnote7"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote7sym" href="#sdendnote7anc" id="sdendnote7sym">vii</a> Dick Forslund (2014). “The Bermuda Connection: Profit Shifting and Unaffordability at Lonmin 1999-2012,” Alternative Information and Development Centre, Cape Town.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote8"> <p><a name="sdendnote8sym" href="#sdendnote8anc" id="sdendnote8sym">viii</a> <a href="http://www.africaprogressreport">www.africaprogressreport</a>.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote9"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote9sym" href="#sdendnote9anc" id="sdendnote9sym">ix</a> Ed Pilkington, (2009, May 27). “14 years After Ken Saro-Wiwa’s Death, Family Points Finger At Shell In Court,” The Guardian.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote10"> <p align="JUSTIFY" lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote10sym" href="#sdendnote10anc" id="sdendnote10sym">x</a> Steven P Meyer, (2009, January 27). “How British Imperialists Created The Fascist Jabotinsky,” Executive Intelligence Review.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote11"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote11sym" href="#sdendnote11anc" id="sdendnote11sym">xi</a> Kenan Malik, (2015, April 21). “Migrants Face Fortress Europe’s Deadly Moat,” New York Times.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote12"> <p><a name="sdendnote12sym" href="#sdendnote12anc" id="sdendnote12sym">xii</a> Kenneth R. Timmerman, (1992). “The Death Lobby: How The West Armed Iraq,” Bantam Books, London</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote13"> <p><a name="sdendnote13sym" href="#sdendnote13anc" id="sdendnote13sym">xiii</a> “Cameron Defends Arms Deals In Gulf,” (2012, November 12). Huffington Post.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote14"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote14sym" href="#sdendnote14anc" id="sdendnote14sym">xiv</a> Jon B Alterman and William McCants, (2012). “Saudi Arabia: Islamists Rising And Falling.” <a href="http://csis.org/files/publication/141215_Chapter6_Alterman_McCants_ReligiousRadicalism.pdf">http://csis.org/files/publication/141215_Chapter6_Alterman_McCants_Reli…</a></p> </div> <div id="sdendnote15"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote15sym" href="#sdendnote15anc" id="sdendnote15sym">xv</a> David Leigh and Rob Evans, (2007, June 7). “BAE Accused Of Secretly Paying £1bn To Saudi Prince,” The Guardian.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote16"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote16sym" href="#sdendnote16anc" id="sdendnote16sym">xvi</a> William Simpson, (2006). The Prince: The Secret Story Of The World’s Most Intriguing Royal, HarperCollins Publishers, New York, pages 133-151.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote17"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote17sym" href="#sdendnote17anc" id="sdendnote17sym">xvii</a> Peter Beaumont, (2015, April 23). “The $18 bn Arms Race Helping To Fuel Middle East Conflict,” The Guardian.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote18"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote18sym" href="#sdendnote18anc" id="sdendnote18sym">xviii</a> Yiannis Baboulias, (2015, April 21). “Europe’s Refugee Policy Is Broken,” Al Jazeera.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote19"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote19sym" href="#sdendnote19anc" id="sdendnote19sym">xix</a> Alison Smale, (2015, April 22). “Germany’s Small Towns Feel The Cost Of Europe’s Migrant Crisis,” New York Times.</p> </div> <div id="sdendnote20"> <p lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA" xml:lang="en-ZA"><a name="sdendnote20sym" href="#sdendnote20anc" id="sdendnote20sym">xx</a> Nick Turse, (2014, April 14). “The US Military’s Battlefield Of Tomorrow,” TomDispatch.com.</p> </div> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/216" hreflang="en">United States of America</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/121" hreflang="en">Saudi Arabia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/125" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/230" hreflang="en">South Africa</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/164" hreflang="en">Eritrea</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/208" hreflang="en">Congo, Democratic Republic of</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/86" hreflang="en">Africa</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/412" hreflang="en">Military bases</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/65" hreflang="en">Mercenaries</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/64" hreflang="en">International Law</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/498" hreflang="en">Extractive industry</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/63" hreflang="en">arms trade</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=24530&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="Ax442zjEAiuQ3u9laJ6Bz1ixZRzPcPXC30AVnNIi-Is"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 28 Apr 2015 15:22:54 +0000 Andrew 24530 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2015/kwerekwere-are-stealing-our-jobs-instead-stop-wars#comments War Profiteer of the Month: BP https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2010/war-profiteer-month-bp <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--10452.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="10452" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 28 Jun 2010</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_1_3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ca3a9a9b-86e2-4ffd-88b9-5fa65d76d9ab" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_325x325/public/images/BP.thumbnail.jpeg?itok=Ix8_7tjc 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/medium/public/images/BP.thumbnail.jpeg?itok=Qv414ZEt" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> BP (formerly British Petroleum) has become one of the world’s most controversial giant corporations because of its involvement in a series of major environmental disasters and industrial accidents. The company has been the target of intense criticism for its role in the April 2010 explosion at a drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico that killed 11 workers and unleashed a vast underwater oil leak that flowed largely unchecked for weeks. This incident occurred while BP was still contending with the legal and public relations fallout from a deadly explosion at a refinery in Texas, oil spills in the Alaskan tundra, and charges of manipulating energy commodities markets.</p> <p>BP got its start exploring for oil in Persia (now Iran), where, in the 1950s, it enlisted the help of the US CIA to overthrow a populist leader who had nationalized the company’s assets in the country. Over the past quarter-century BP has solidified its position as one of the premier global oil companies with a series of acquisitions in the United States: Standard Oil of Ohio (1987), Amoco (1998) and Atlantic Richfield (2000).</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>BP had its origins in the exploration efforts of Englishman William Knox D’Arcy. In 1908, seven years after securing a large concession in Persia (now Iran), he made the first oil discovery in the Middle East. With the financial backing of Burmah Oil Company, he formed the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1909.</p> <p>A plan for U.S. participation in TPC, renamed Iraq Petroleum, was worked out in 1928. The American companies, Standard Oil of New Jersey and Standard Oil Co. of New York, along with Anglo-Persian, Royal Dutch/Shell, and the French state-owned Compagnie Française des Pétroles, agreed not to compete with one another for concessions in a huge area representing the old Ottoman Empire.</p> <p>To supplement what came to be called the Red Line arrangement, the heads of Jersey Standard, Royal Dutch/Shell, and Anglo-Persian met secretly at Achnacarry, a hunting lodge in Scotland, in 1928. Forming what became known as the As-Is agreement, the oil giants pooled the world market (aside from the United States and the Soviet Union), and divided it up according to existing shares of the major producers. Any expansion of the business was supposed to preserve those relationships. This was the first international oil cartel.</p> <p>Although the architects of As-Is continued to dominate the global oil market outside the United States, they were unable to prevent competitors from expanding. Standard Oil of California got a foothold in Bahrain, and Gulf Oil in partnership with Anglo-Iranian (the new name Anglo-Persian took after the Shah changed the name of his country to Iran in 1935) obtained a valuable concession in Kuwait.</p> <p>After the Second World War, many oil-producing countries began to demand greater control over their petroleum production—especially in Iran. Dissatisfied with the 50-50 arrangement established in countries such as Venezuela, Iran's National Front, led by Mohammed Mossadegh, demanded complete control over the country's oil industry. In 1951, after Mossadegh became prime minister, the country expropriated Anglo-Iranian's assets.</p> <p>The company got back at Iran by seeing to it that other large petroleum producers effectively boycotted its oil output. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency provided the coup de grâce in 1953 by helping to overthrow the Mossadegh government and put the Shah back in power. A consortium of Western oil companies was formed to re-establish foreign control over Iranian oil. Anglo-Iranian (which changed its name to British Petroleum in 1954) ended up with 40 percent of the new entity. In addition, the Iranian government was to pay BP £25 million in compensation over ten years, and the other companies in the consortium agreed to pay BP £32 million and 10 cents a barrel in recognition of Anglo-Iranian's investments over the preceding decades.<br /> Apart from resuming operations in Iran, BP expanded its exploration activities in many other parts of the world, including Nigeria, Trinidad, and Canada. The biggest strikes came in Alaska and the North Sea. In 1965 BP discovered natural gas in the North Sea, and five years later struck oil there. The company made a major oil find in Alaska's Prudhoe Bay in 1969. BP thus found itself the owner of some of the largest petroleum reserves in the world.</p> <p>The company took advantage of the situation to make its first foray into the American market. This was done by merging its Alaska assets with Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) in exchange for a 25 percent holding (later increased to 55 percent) in the company, which was the original base of the Rockefeller empire.</p> <p>BP began to expand its chemical activities in the late 1960s following the purchase of the interest of Distillers Co. in the joint venture the two firms had formed in Scotland in 1951. BP later bought the European chemical and plastic operations of the U.S. companies Union Carbide and Monsanto. During the 1970s BP also got into coal, purchasing properties in Australia, Canada, and South Africa. The company later diversified into animal feed as well, aided by a 1986 purchase of Purina Mills in the United States.</p> <p>In the late 1980s BP also consolidated its oil holdings, first by ousting the top executives of Sohio and spending $8 billion to acquire the remaining shares of the company (which was renamed BP America)—a step that made BP the third largest oil company in the world. The move came after a number of years of unfriendly relations between BP and the management of Sohio, which had experienced disappointing results from further oil exploration and from the acquisition of Kennecott Copper in 1981. BP expanded its presence in the North Sea in 1988 by acquiring Britoil for some $4 billion in 1988.<br /> The ownership structure of BP itself changed in 1987, when the Thatcher government decided to sell off its shares. The Kuwait Investment Office was the largest purchaser, ending up with a 21.6 percent stake in the entire company. Under pressure from the British government, that holding was later reduced to a less threatening 9.9 percent. BP brought that about by buying back the other shares with the $4.4 billion in proceeds from the sale of its minerals operation to RTZ.</p> <p>In 1990 BP chairman Robert Horton announced Project 1990, an aggressive plan to streamline the company’s complex structure and cut costs, which turned out to include the elimination of tens of thousands of jobs. One of those who lost his job was Horton himself, who was forced out in 1992 by what was described as a coup by other board members unhappy at the fact that BP, despite the cuts, had experienced the first quarterly losses in its history.</p> <p>Before long, BP decided it needed to get larger rather than smaller. In 1998 it spent about $50 billion to acquire U.S. oil company Amoco in what was then the largest oil industry merger, and the largest takeover of an American corporation by a foreign firm. The combined company took the name BP Amoco.</p> <p>Two years later, BP Amoco spent nearly $30 billion to acquire another large U.S. oil company, Atlantic Richfield (known as Arco). BP had to sell off Arco’s Alaskan assets to get approval for the deal from the Federal Trade Commission. In 2000 BP also acquired motor oil producer Burmah Castrol for about $4.7 billion. That year the company removed “Amoco” from its name and became known as BP PLC.</p> <p>In 2002 BP acquired the German company Veba Oil, including its network of Aral service stations. In 2003 BP merged its Russian operations with those of Tyumen and Sidanco to form TNK-BP, the third largest oil company in Russia.</p> <p>In 2005 and 2006 the company was rocked by scandals relating to an explosion at a refinery in Texas that killed 15 workers and to oil spills in Alaska. Those controversies, along with revelations about his private life (about which he gave false testimony in a court case), prompted BP’s chief executive John Browne to resign in 2007.</p> <p>Browne’s successor Tony Hayward had his own crisis in 2010 when an offshore drilling platform leased by BP suffered a major explosion, killing 11 workers and sending huge quantities of crude oil into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Iraq war</strong></p> <p>BP was one of the first companies to exploit Iraqi oil. In 1925, a 75-year concession contract was granted to a consortium 23.75% owned by BP, together with other British, French and US companies. Combined with two further contracts signed in the 1930s, the consortium gained control over all of Iraq's oil. The terms of the contracts, reflected the fact that Iraq was occupied by Britain. The deals gave most of the oil revenue to the companies, along with complete control over decision-making. . Ultimately, following the overthrow of the British-installed monarchy in 1958, the consortium's rights were restricted in 1961 to cover only existing producing fields. Between 1972 and 1975, those fields too were brought under national control, like those of all major oil producers of the Middle East. Yet these terms long outlasted the occupation The historical parallels to present days are stark.</p> <p>In October 2002, five months before the bombs started falling on Baghdad, BP's then Chief Executive John Browne insisted that "there should be a level playing field for the selection of oil companies to go in there." In other words, Iraq's oil should benefit not just US companies, but European companies too. (The idea that it might benefit the Iraqi people was somehow neglected).</p> <p>There has long been a revolving door between BP and the British Foreign Office. Indeed, of the last five (civil servant) heads of the Foreign Office, four have gone to become directors of oil and gas companies - including BP.</p> <p>BP was also one of six oil companies that sponsored a lobbying effort beginning in June 2003, The purpose was to pressure the Iraqi government to grant the companies long term contracts called production sharing agreements (PSAs) which would give them exclusive rights to extract Iraq's oil, along with potentially unlimited profit. In order for BP and its fellow companies to feel legally secure, they needed an oil law to confirm their rights to the oil. The first draft for this law was written in July 2006, and was seen by BP and other oil companies within two weeks, while members of the Iraqi parliament would not see it until eight months later; while Iraqi civil society was excluded altogether. The interest groups involved in the drafting were reflected in the content: the law says that multinational companies will play the primary role in developing Iraq's oil, for the first time since the 1970s. It offers them contracts of up to 30 years, with exclusive rights to develop the oil, an extensive legal powers.</p> <p><strong>Human rights</strong></p> <p>BP was one of about two dozen large corporations named as defendants in a lawsuit filed in U.S. federal court in 2002 that accused the companies of aiding and abetting crimes against humanity committed by the government of South Africa during the apartheid era. After surviving various challenges that went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, the case continued and is pending.</p> <p>Groups such as the Kurdish Human Rights Project have criticized BP’s Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline not only for environmental reasons but also for human rights abuses reportedly perpetrated on opponents of the pipeline project in Turkey.</p> <p>In 2004 some 300 non-governmental organizations and individuals sent a protest to the chairman of BP complaining that the company had failed to meet its commitments regarding the protection of human rights in connection with the Tangguh natural gas project in Indonesia. Those deficiencies persisted, prompting advocacy groups to send another letter to top BP management in 2008.</p> <p>In 2009 a group of Colombian farmers filed suit against BP in British court, alleging that the company’s pipeline in their country caused landslides and damage to soil and groundwater, thus harming their crops, livestock and fish ponds.</p> <p><strong>Environment and product safety</strong></p> <p>Starting about 2000, BP attempted the difficult feat of depicting itself as an environmentally friendly oil company. Some of its initiatives were merely symbolic—adopting a sunburst logo and claiming that its initials now stood for “Beyond Petroleum”—while others were concrete steps, such as (modest) investments in solar power. BP’s campaign was all the more difficult because of its involvement in controversial Alaskan oil and gas production, and because its environmental compliance record was far from unblemished.</p> <p><strong>Political influence (national and international)</strong></p> <p>Like other large corporations, BP lobbies aggressively for its interests in Washington, DC. According to the Open Secrets database, the company spent nearly $16 million on federal lobbying activities in 2009.</p> <p>Although the Obama administration has strongly criticized BP in connection with the Gulf of Mexico disaster, the company has a strong tie to a senior member of that administration: Energy Secretary Steven Chu. Before he took that post Chu was head of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. In 2007 there was a controversy about corporate influence over research when BP pledged $500 million to create an institute to study biofuels to be run by the Laboratory, the University of California and the University of Illinois.</p> <p>For more information:<br /> <a href="http://www.bp.com/">http://www.bp.com/</a><br /> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bp">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bp</a><br /> <a href="http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/bp">http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/bp</a><br /> <a href="http://www.handsoffiraqioil.org/">http://www.handsoffiraqioil.org/</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/125" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=10452&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="s2Nr6ZaH1joSBtYOGD1D-Sy6aGL5wUWnVZoPx-H0o0g"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 28 Jun 2010 14:31:33 +0000 javier 10452 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2010/war-profiteer-month-bp#comments Iran to shorten military service from 2011 https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/iran-shorten-military-service-2011 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--8180.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="8180" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Jul 2009</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Iranian parliament (Majlis) has passed a new bill to cut military service in the country by 2 to 10 months for conscripts with university degrees, Iranian <a href="http://www.presstv.ir/">Press TV</a> reported on 30 June 2009. Presently, military service lasts generally 18 months, but there are shorter terms for college graduates.<br /> According to the latest Majlis ratification, military service for conscripts with a PHD falls 10 months. Master and bachelor graduates will serve 8 and 6 months lesser respectively.</p> <p>The service decreased 4 and 2 months for associate degree and diploma holders respectively.<br /> <em>"The new regulation will be performed from the year 2011 and until then the current law will be executed,"</em> added Kamali who is the chief conscription officer of the armed forces.<br /> The new regulation defines the maximum period of military service up to 24 months and the commander-in-chief has authority to change the period.</p> <p>During the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war, military service in the Islamic Republic lasted 24 months, but has since been gradually shortened to less than two years.</p> <p><em>Sources</em>: PressTV: <a href="http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=99415&amp;sectionid=351020101">Iran may cut mandatory military service</a>, 30 June 2009; Center for Strategic and International Studies: <a href="http://www.csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/060728_gulf_iran.pdf">The Gulf Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric War - Iran</a>, Working Draft for Review and Comments, Revised: June 28, 2006</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=8180&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="xRBS1-IL6OH_jdhOaVNmNqd8vCVtPNPBzEh4bLoT-0A"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 01 Jul 2009 14:49:06 +0000 warresisters 8180 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/iran-shorten-military-service-2011#comments Iran - Nonviolent Action videoclips https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/iran-nonviolent-action-videoclips <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--8085.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="8085" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 17 Jun 2009</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Enjoy these two Iranian videos about nonviolent action: </p> <p><a href="http://org2.democracyinaction.org/dia/track.jsp?v=2&amp;c=QEjxPCluav1y%2B9Qnd6s%2F0f3urD%2FIiJyk">The Door</a></p> <p><a href="http://org2.democracyinaction.org/dia/track.jsp?v=2&amp;c=MKOzMN1T6DRUNqQljkpNxf3urD%2FIiJyk">Gandhi </a></p> <p>And here is a link to the petition in support of nonviolent protesters in Iran on the web page of the Center for the Study of Strategic Nonviolent Defense</p> <p><a href="http://org2.democracyinaction.org/dia/track.jsp?v=2&amp;c=CtG9D6aae3rFFgRjXPIm7P3urD%2FIiJyk">Petition</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/nonviolence-resources" hreflang="en">Nonviolence Resources</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=8085&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="vjO7AP0NtSvw5ATsOfcB54opZo1HYwlDLO648m6fHgg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 17 Jun 2009 09:00:57 +0000 howclark 8085 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/iran-nonviolent-action-videoclips#comments Iran https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Iran <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--4079.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="4079" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 05 Apr 1998</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><address>05/04/1998</address> <h3>1 Conscription</h3> <p></p><p><em>conscription exists</em> </p><p>Conscription exists since 1925. [8]</p><p>The present legal basis of conscription is the 1984 Military Service Act, plus various decrees issued since than. </p><p>Military service is performed in the armed forces and the Pasdaran (Islamic Revolutionary Guard), which was established in 1979 by Ayatollah Khomeini, its prime responsibility being to preserve internal security. Since 1989 both the Pasdaran and the regular armed forces are under Ministry of Defence jurisdiction, but under a different command. In 1995 the Iranian authorities were thought to have started to reduce and reorganise the Pasdaran, but it is no known whether they succeeded - the Pasdaran is traditionally quite autonomous. [8] </p><p>There are also several paramilitary forces, such as <em>Ashura</em>, a militia established by the government in 1993; <em>Hezbollahi</em>, radical Islamic militants, tolerated by the government and <em>Basiji</em>, which mostly consists of young people. No information is available on the recruitment methods of these paramilitary forces. [1] </p><p><em>military service </em> </p><p>All men between the ages of 18 and 50 are liable for military service, between 18 and 60 in time of emergency. [7] </p><p>Military service lasts for two years. It was reduced from 28 months in 1988 after the end of the war with Iraq. [7] </p><p>The 1984 law provides for reserve service for those up to the age of 50; and up to 60 in times of general mobilisation. Since 1989 reservist obligations are thought not to be enforced in practice. [7] </p><p><em>postponement and exemption</em> </p><p>Postponement is possible for students. Students must be available for military service as soon as they have completed their studies. [7] </p><p>Students who continue their studies abroad and who pay their own expenses are exempted. PhDs and men with BAs who left Iran before March 1990 may get exempted on paying a fee of USD 16,600,-. [8] </p><p>Exemption is possible for medical reasons, for domestic reasons (if an individual is the sole family breadwinner) and in the case of 'martyrs of the revolution' (those having a brother or father who died in the Iran-Iraq war). [7] [8] </p><p>Men who left Iran after 1990 may get exempted on paying a fee of USD 1,000-3,000. [8] </p><p><em>recruitment</em> </p><p>All men must register for medical examination at a local recruitment centre in the year they become 18. An age-group of conscripts is called up for medical examination via announcements in the media. After medical examination those found fit to serve receive a military document with their call-up date. Call-up for military service usually takes place at the age of 18. [6] </p><p>As the number of liable conscripts exceeds the number of recruits actually needed, recruitment is by ballot. Officials of the regular armed forces and the Pasdaran set quotas for the number of recruits required. When, after the ballot, a conscript is called up he may choose if he wants to serve in the Pasdaran or in the regular armed forces. Many apparantly want to serve in the Pasdaran, given the incentives and benefits this entails. But, depending on the conscripts' skills, his choice may be disregarded by the Pasdaran recruitment officers. Politically suspect individuals are thought to be less likely to be recruited by the Pasdaran. [13] [14] </p><p>Those who are not recruited are granted deferment from for a few months to a year. [8] [13] [14]<br /> </p><h3>2 Conscientious objection</h3> <p></p><p>The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized and there are no provisions for substitute service. [9] [16]<br /> </p><h3>3 Draft evasion and desertion</h3> <p></p><p><em>penalties</em></p> <p>Draft evasion and desertion are punishable under the 1992 Law on Punishment of Crimes Concerning the Armed Forces, which prescribes different penalties for permanent and for temporary members of the armed forces. The following information concerns the possible punishment for temporary members of the armed forces (conscripts).</p><p>Absence without leave for more than 15 days without a valid reason is punishable by six months' to two years' imprisonment and/or 12 months extension of military service; </p><p>Desertion is punishable by two to 12 months' imprisonment in case the deserter surrenders himself to the authorities. </p><p>Those who avoid call-up for military service are considered deserters. [10] </p><p>In 1996 the <em>Tazi'rat</em> (the Islamic criminal code) was amended to prescribe harsher punishments for several offences. Although draft evasion and desertion are not specifically mentioned in the <em>Tazi'rat</em>, it seems likely that some articles, notably arts. 504 and 509, apply to draft evasion and desertion. [2] [11] </p><p>According to art. 504: "Whoever manages to incite the armed forces, or who in one way or another assists the armed forces, to rebellion, desertion, surrender or non-performance of their military duties shall be considered a <em>Muhaarib</em> if he intended to overturn the government or to enable the defeat of own forces by the enemy; otherwise, if the actions taken by him have been effective he will be sentenced to from two to ten years' imprisonment, and if they are not, he will be sentenced to six months' to three years' imprisonment." (A <em>Muhaarib</em> is someone who takes up arms against the Islamic government). </p><p>According to art. 509: "Whoever commits one of the crimes against the internal or external security mentioned in this chapter during the war will receive the maximum sentence for such a crime." </p><p><em>practice</em> </p><p>There is considerable monitoring of draft evasion and desertion. All who have completed their military service get a certificate - needed for various practical matters, such as obtaining a passport or driving licence, getting a job in some state enterprise. [7] </p><p>According to a 1983 law all men must, on certain occasions, be able to prove they have performed military service. Inability to produce the certificate can lead to difficulties over getting offered certain jobs. [5] </p><p>Draft evaders and deserters who have been punished and eventually completed their military service, may face a delay of from several months to ten years over receiving this certificate. The delay is the shortest for draft evaders in peacetime who have returned voluntarily and the longest for draft evaders in wartime. [7]</p><p>Those granted postponement of military service may leave the country only in exceptional circumstances and they must pay a deposit. Foreign travel permits are valid for only up to three months. Airport authorities have lists of those forbidden to leave the country, and passports are thoroughly checked by the police and security forces. Individuals granted exemption get a document certifying that they may leave the country. [6] </p><p>Due to the closedness of Iranian society, detailed information about the punishment of draft evaders and deserters is difficult to obtain.</p><p>According to one source, draft evaders and deserters are particularly apt to face punishment if they have deserted for political reasons, if they have been politically active in the past or if they have deserted previously during the war with Iraq. [4] </p><p><em>amnesty</em> </p><p>Several amnesties for draft evaders and deserters have been announced in the past.</p><p>In June 1992 an amnesty was announced, which prescribed that draft evaders and deserters who availed themselves to the authorities before July 1992 had to perform military service for the usual length of time. It is not known how this amnesty functioned in practice. [4] </p><p>Between July 1992 and March 1993 there was an amnesty in force for draft evaders and deserters who had left the country. It exempted them from further military service provided they paid a fine, the amount depending on the number of years they had received state education. It is thought that draft evaders and deserters have indeed benefited from this amnesty. [3] [10] </p><p>In May 1996 an amnesty was announced, which reduced the prison sentences of military offenders and released them from prison by 23 May 1996. It is not clear if this amnesty applied to draft evaders and deserters. [12]<br /> </p><h3>6 Annual statistics</h3> <p></p><p>The armed forces are 450,000-strong - that is, 0.71 percent of the population. </p><p>Every year about 580,000 men reach conscription age. There are 320,000 conscripts in the armed forces. [11] </p><p>The paramilitary forces are about 350,000-strong. [11]<br /> </p><h3>Sources</h3> <p></p><p></p><p class="small"> [1] UNHCR Centre for Documentation on Refugees 1995. Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Iran. UNHCR, Geneva. [2] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1996. Report on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, prepared by Maurice Copithorne, 21 March 1996. United Nations, Geneva. [3] German Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1995. Lagebericht Iran, 1 September 95. Auswäriges Amt, Bonn. [4] Amnesty International (Dutch Section) 1994. Letter to Staatssecretaris van Justitie, 16 December 1994. AI, Amsterdam. [5] Amnesty International (Dutch Section) 1989. Letter to VluchtelingenWerk, 1 September 1989. AI, Amsterdam. [6] Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1996. Ambtsbericht, 1 May 1996. BuiZa, Den Haag. [7] Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1991. Ambtsbericht, 24 June 1991. BuiZa, Den Haag. [8] Immigration and Refugee Board 1997. Human rights in Iran: Update on selected issues. DIRB, Ottawa. [9] UN Commission on Human Rights 1997. The question of conscientious objection to military service, report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/83. United Nations, Geneva. [10] Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1997. Ambtsbericht, 5 June 1997. BuiZa, Den Haag. [11] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London. [12] 'Khamene'i approves amnesty, reduction in sentences for military offenders', Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 21 May 1996. [13] DIRB, 26 January 1996. [14] DIRB, 28 November 1995. [15] DIRB, 23 May 1997. [16] Amnesty International 1991. Conscientious objection to military service. AI, London.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Iran</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4079&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="oLKuKLJiyL6UuMShR6DAwglSMsC6VxldQNxeuHw4ybQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sun, 05 Apr 1998 00:00:00 +0000 warresisters 4079 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Iran#comments