Denmark https://updates.wri-irg.org/en?language=en en Faroes islanders protest new NATO radar station https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2021/faroes-islanders-protest-new-nato-radar-station?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42435.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42435" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2021-08/1626887615ikejhpsdui.jpg?itok=pB8XYTD3 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2021-08/1626887615ikejhpsdui.jpg?itok=Sn8b7N7E 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2021-08/1626887615ikejhpsdui.jpg?itok=Sn8b7N7E" alt="A large number of people sit to listen to a speaker at a protest." typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 09 Aug 2021</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Lowana Veal</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span style="line-height:100%">During the Cold War a radar station was operated by the US military, under the guise of NATO, on Sornfelli mountain, 12 km from the capital of the Faroe Islands, Tórshavn. The radar station was set up without the knowledge of the Faroese public: the Faroes are a Danish autonomous territory and the Danes had provided NATO and the US military with land to use as a military base in both Greenland and the Faroes, on the basis that they would then have to pay less dues to NATO. Most of the time the base and radar station were operated without consulting the Faroese islanders, who knew little about what was going on there.</span></p> <p><span style="line-height:100%">There is strong anti-militarist support in the Faroes, and when NATO announced that they would close the radar station on 1 January 2007 – three months after the US closed their military base in Iceland – the Faroese rejoiced.</span></p> <p><span style="line-height:100%">But in recent years the US and NATO have become increasingly interested in the North Atlantic waters, and the idea was mooted of re-establishing the radar base on Sornfelli, using new equipment. Earlier this year the Danish authorities said that they had come to an agreement with NATO on a radar station structure on Sornfelli.</span></p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div alt="The previous radar station on Sornfelli" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="247b68ec-8da9-4582-a5c2-2728ff9d153b" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/sornfelli.jpg?itok=Cd7OQNl1 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/sornfelli.jpg?itok=Cd7OQNl1" alt="The previous radar station on Sornfelli" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <figcaption>The previous radar station on Sornfelli, closed in 2007.</figcaption> </figure> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> </p> <p><span style="line-height:100%">Again, the Faroese islanders were not consulted and, not surprisingly, they reacted strongly. While some islanders blindly follow whatever Denmark and NATO want to do and others are prepared to have the military back again if the Faroese islanders are consulted, opinion surveys indicate that the majority of Faroese residents are completely against the military build-up in the Faroes. But the make-up of the Faroese parliament does not reflect the latter view, and indeed it is unclear if in fact they will have a say in the matter at all.</span></p> <p><span style="line-height:100%">On July 21, the youth groups of the Faroese political parties opposing the radar station organized a demonstration, which was initially envisaged to be up on Sornfelli mountain itself but was then relocated to the capital, Tórshavn. The demonstration, which was attended by over 100 people, focused on the right to self-determination. Their message was clear: We make the decisions; Faroese politics will be governed from the Faroes; we own the radar; and we own the free space. That same evening, Icelandic anti-militarists staged a small demonstration of solidarity outside the Faroese embassy.</span></p> <p><span style="line-height:100%">Besides the radar station, Denmark also announced in February that it would purchase two surveillance drones for Greenland – another Danish autonomous territory. Together with the radar station on Sornfelli, these would cover “blind spots” and improve Denmark’s surveillance capabilities in Greenland and the North Atlantic. The Danes are planning to spend <span lang="en-US" xml:lang="en-US" xml:lang="en-US">1.5 billion Danish kroner ($245 million, €200 million) on the military investments in Sornfelli and Greenland.</span></span></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_88 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/wri-affiliate" hreflang="en">WRI affiliate</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/199" hreflang="en">Denmark</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/216" hreflang="en">United States of America</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-institutions--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-institutions.html.twig * field--expert--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-institutions.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--node--field-institutions.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-institutions.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Institutions</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/393" hreflang="en">North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42435&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="QAKhZYJkmo-WyUZtBZ4m3WpNb3yQVZUnS1Iz5WvQ_DM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 09 Aug 2021 13:32:30 +0000 Andrew 42435 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Danish company Terma accused of violating UAE arms embargo https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/danish-company-terma-accused-violating-uae-arms-embargo?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42111.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42111" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2018-04/villagers_scour_rubble_for_belongings_scattered_during_the_bombing_of_hajar_aukaish_-_yemen_-_in_april_2015.jpg?itok=B9wi2gLy 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-04/villagers_scour_rubble_for_belongings_scattered_during_the_bombing_of_hajar_aukaish_-_yemen_-_in_april_2015.jpg?itok=ODW3QvvD 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-04/villagers_scour_rubble_for_belongings_scattered_during_the_bombing_of_hajar_aukaish_-_yemen_-_in_april_2015.jpg?itok=ODW3QvvD" alt="Yemeni&#039;s search rubble after a bombing" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 23 May 2020</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A Danish independent media and research centre has published a report accusing the country’s largest arms manufacturer, Terma, of war crimes after continuing to supply arms to the United Arab Emirates, despite a decision by Denmark to stop arming Saudi and the UAE because of their involvement in the war in Yemen. The report accuses the Danish authorities of being “asleep at the wheel” when considering Terma’s requests for export permits.</p> <p>DanWatch used “satellite imagery, public access requests, intelligence reports, social media, export permits and dozens of interviews” to document the use of Terma radar and missile defence systems.</p> <p>The report found that Terma continued to supply radar and missile defence systems which were later used in Yemen. Examples of such military equipment include the Scanter 2001, which was used on Emirari warships which regularly participated in the naval blockade, stopping carrying emergency aid from reaching the Yemeni coast. The naval blockade of Yemen has left ten million starving and 80% of the country dependent on aid. The report alleges that Terma continued to deliver spare parts until October 2019, and invited a team of Emirati radar technicians to participate in a training session at the company’s factory in Lystrup.</p> <p>William Hartung, an expert in international arms trade and head of the American think tank Center for International Policy, is quoted in the report, arguing that “Without the radar systems, the Emirates warships are neither able to participate in the war in Yemen nor in the naval blockade.”</p> <p>Other Terma equipment used by the UAE includes a defence system for the Archangel fighter aircraft. The aircraft are equipped with Terma’s MASE pods, a defense system mounted under the wings to protect aircraft from attack from the ground.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies?language=en" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465?language=en" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/149?language=en" hreflang="en">Yemen</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/199?language=en" hreflang="en">Denmark</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/141?language=en" hreflang="en">United Arab Emirates</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/63?language=en" hreflang="en">arms trade</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42111&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="S75by2VJJ0VynLjyKv_RtiQW0649sjd0_FAqVOd2qS8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sat, 23 May 2020 13:19:58 +0000 Andrew 42111 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Finland, Denmark and Netherlands announce arms to Saudi suspension https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2018/finland-denmark-and-netherlands-announce-arms-saudi-suspension?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41660.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41660" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2018-11/27649320274_02d8a1d433_o.jpg?itok=gEUCh_nq 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-11/27649320274_02d8a1d433_o.jpg?itok=Okh2zFZr 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2018-11/27649320274_02d8a1d433_o.jpg?itok=Okh2zFZr" alt="Activists dress in black &quot;grim reaper&quot; outfits and hold a banner reading &quot;Stop Arming Saudi&quot;" title="Activists in the UK hold a protest against arms sales to Saudi. Photo: CAAT/Flickr" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 27 Nov 2018</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Andrew Metheven</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Germany has been joined by Finland, Netherlands, and Denmark in a suspension of arms sales to Saudi Arabia. The decisions follow the assassination of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, and announcements by the United Nations that Yemen is experiencing the worst famine the world has seen for 100 years. Save the Children, <a href="https://www.savethechildren.org/us/about-us/media-and-news/2018-press-releases/yemen-85000-children-may-have-died-from-starvation">using data compiled by the UN</a>, has estimated that 85,000 children in Yemen may have died from starvation or disease since the war began in 2015. According to the research organisation Saferworld, Finland sold around <a href="https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20181123-finland-suspends-arms-exports-to-saudi-arabia-uae/">$6m worth of arms to Saudi Arabia</a> in 2017. Denmark's freeze includes military and surveillence equipment, and some "dual-use" technologies. Following the passing of a law banning arms sales to Saudi Arabia, the Dutch Foreign Secretary Stef Blok announced that he would be pushing for a similar ban by the United Nations.</p> <p class="selectionShareable">In November the European Parliament called for further restrictions on European arms exports to Saudi Arabia. In a statement, the Parliament said: “Warships imported from EU countries are used to impose a blockade on Yemen, while aircraft and bombs are used in air raids that deepen the human tragedy.”</p> <p>In mid-November, the US Senate rejected a resolution by Senator Rand Paul designed to stop a $300 million shipment of missiles and launchers from the USA to Bahrain. Bahrain is a member of the Saudi-led coalition, and in September the State Department announced it intended to sell 110 Army Tactical Missiles Systems (ATACMS) missiles along with 120 rocket pods. ATACMS is a 500lb-class guided missile with a 300km range, built by Lockheed Martin.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_97 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/155" hreflang="en">Finland</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/192" hreflang="en">Netherlands</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/199" hreflang="en">Denmark</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/121" hreflang="en">Saudi Arabia</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/301" hreflang="en">Lockheed Martin</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41660&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="NIWvA05lcGAbz0EGofi2sP3XH4D4s-MxsJnTrEPHcEk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 27 Nov 2018 09:37:40 +0000 Andrew 41660 at https://updates.wri-irg.org BAE Systems profiting from surveillance technology https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/bae-systems-profiting-surveillance-technology?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--40778.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="40778" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/_96488278_baeflags.jpg?itok=9SgCMJ-F 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/_96488278_baeflags.jpg?itok=DXT7ykd4 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/_96488278_baeflags.jpg?itok=DXT7ykd4" alt="A BAE Systems factory" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 26 Jun 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="western">Journalists in the UK and Denmark have uncovered evidence that BAE Systems – the UK's largest arms companies and one of the largest in the world – has profited from the sale of surveillance technology, including to many oppressive governments in the Middle East.</p> <p class="western">ETI, a Danish company bought by BAE Systems in 2011 for £137m, developed a system called Evident. Evident is capable of pinpointing an individuals location based on data from their mobile phone, decrypt encrypted messages, and had advanced voice recognition capabilities. Users of the technology could monitor a whole countries internet use, and filter websites, blogs, and social media by specific key words, such as the name of an opponent of the government. An anonymous source who used to work at ETI told the BBC “You would be able to intercept any internet traffic. If you wanted to do a whole country, go ahead. You would probably need something to narrow your search down, either by a specific person, a specific email address, specific IP address or specific keywords to search for.”</p> <p class="western">The BBC (UK) and the Dagbladet Information newspaper (Denmark) used freedom of information requests to reveal the technology had been exported to countries including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Oman, Morocco and Algeria. Many of these countries have questionable human rights records, including targetting pro-democracy activists during the Arab Spring uprisings, were mobile technology and social media played a key part in organising protests.</p> <p class="western">The BBC made clear that it's impossible to link the circumstances of particular activists, human rights activists and democracy campaigners have seen a huge impact of surveillance technology since the start of the Arab spring. The media group spoke to Yahya Assiri, a former Saudi air force officer who fled the country after posting pro-democracy statements online, who said "I wouldn't be exaggerating if I said more than 90% of the most active campaigners in 2011 have now vanished."</p> <p class="western">All of the sales of the Evident system were entirely legal, licensed for export under Danish government export licenses, issued by the Danish Business Authority.</p> <p class="western">  </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers?language=en" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/8?language=en" hreflang="en">Nonviolence</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/141?language=en" hreflang="en">United Arab Emirates</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/121?language=en" hreflang="en">Saudi Arabia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/129?language=en" hreflang="en">Oman</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/132?language=en" hreflang="en">Qatar</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/199?language=en" hreflang="en">Denmark</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/92?language=en" hreflang="en">United Kingdom</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/282?language=en" hreflang="en">BAE Systems</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=40778&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="rJZk74W4aHeZJtyqIRhXfhjfCwITKlSKbgYIrItwPy4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Mon, 26 Jun 2017 09:16:08 +0000 Andrew 40778 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Denmark: Parliament examines compulsory defence day for women https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/denmark-parliament-examines-compulsory-defence-day-women?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--8178.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="8178" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Jul 2009</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Denmark's "Defence Commission", which has been set up in 2007 to provide direction to the government's 2010-14 National Defense Plan, advocates retaining conscription, but recommends a broad debate "into the future value" of conscription, so a report released in March 2009. The commission's report calls for defense spending be increased by 10 to 15 percent to accommodate a rapid expansion of Denmark's land forces and important equipment procurement programmes.<br /> Three months later, the Danish parliament reached agreement on a major funding boost for the military. The issue of conscription was also discussed as part of the defence budget negotiations and parliament will further examine if all 18-year-old women should be forced to attend the military's draft board reviews in the same way as their male peers, so the Copenhagen Post in report published on 25 June.</p> <p>Presently, the selection of conscripts is by balloting, as the number of young men available for military service is much greater than the number considered necessary by the Danish National Forces. Selection involves drawing lots during medical examination, which takes place during newly introduced “Danish Defence Days” (Forsvarets dag). The lots are actually not drawn by the conscripts themselves but by the military authorities.</p> <p>There are more conscripts than the armed forces need. Therefore in practice only 30 to 50 percent of all liable conscripts are called up for military service. Most conscripts in the armed forces have volunteered to serve.</p> <p><em>Sources</em>: DefenseNews.com: <a href="http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=4042708">Danish Commission Calls for Bigger Defense Budget</a>, 16 April 2009; The Copenhagen Post: <a href="http://cphpost.dk/news/national/88-national/46062-defence-forces-get-multi-billion-kroner-boost.html">Defence forces get multi-billion kroner boost</a>, 25 June 2009; War Resisters' International: <a href="/programmes/world_survey/country_report/en/Denmark">Country report and updates: Denmark</a>, 2008</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/199?language=en" hreflang="en">Denmark</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57?language=en" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=8178&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="EgPB3hJWtXGyajV6NV6jRr6SFwzqmZb3QmiusfucelY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Wed, 01 Jul 2009 14:44:00 +0000 warresisters 8178 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/denmark-parliament-examines-compulsory-defence-day-women?language=en#comments Conscientious objection: Legal practices and frameworks among EU member states https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2009/conscientious-objection-legal-practices-and-frameworks-among-eu-member-states?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--6484.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="6484" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 15 Jan 2009</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><!--break--><h3>Presentation for the Subcommittee on Security and Defence of the European<br /> Parliament</h3> <p>by Andreas Speck, Right to Refuse to Kill Programme, War Resisters' International<br /> <br /><br /> <br /></p> <p></p><h2>1. Introduction</h2> <p></p><p>In this presentation I<br /> will give an overview of the right to conscientious objection, its<br /> legal practices and frameworks in the 27 European Union member<br /> states. Before I do so, I want to step back a bit and have a brief<br /> look at the existing international standards about the right to<br /> conscientious objection, as these standards allow us to put the<br /> practices in the EU member states into a perspective.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>► Conscientious objection as a right</h3> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">It is now accepted that<br /> the right to conscientious objection is protected under the right to<br /> freedom of thought, conscience and religion (Article 18 <i>International<br /> Covenant on Civil and Political Rights</i>, Article 9 of the <i>European<br /> Convention of Human Rights</i>), and seen as a legitimate exercise of<br /> this right<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote1anc" href="#sdfootnote1sym" id="sdfootnote1anc"><sup>1</sup></a>.<br /> The former United Nations Commission on Human Rights has reiterated<br /> this right in several resolutions since 1987<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote2anc" href="#sdfootnote2sym" id="sdfootnote2anc"><sup>2</sup></a>.<br /> If there have been any doubts in the past, then the decision of the<br /> United Nations <i>Human Rights Committee</i> from January 2007 on two<br /> individual complaints from South Korea certainly clarified the<br /> issue<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote3anc" href="#sdfootnote3sym" id="sdfootnote3anc"><sup>3</sup></a>.<br /> Subsequently, the United Nations <i>Working Group on Arbitrary<br /> Detention</i> classified any imprisonment of a conscientious objector<br /> as a form of arbitrary detention<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote4anc" href="#sdfootnote4sym" id="sdfootnote4anc"><sup>4</sup></a>,<br /> while previously it only saw the second and any subsequent<br /> imprisonment as arbitrary detention.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">It is important to note<br /> that article 18(1) of the Covenant, which covers both the right to<br /> freedom of thought, conscience and religion and to manifest it, is<br /> non-derogable even during times of national emergency threatening the<br /> life of the nation.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">While there has been<br /> some jurisprudence at the level of the United Nations <i>Human Rights<br /> Committee</i>, the <i>European Court of Human Rights</i> has so far<br /> shied away from ruling on the question whether article 9 of the<br /> European Convention of Human Rights includes the right to<br /> conscientious objection<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote5anc" href="#sdfootnote5sym" id="sdfootnote5anc"><sup>5</sup></a>.<br /> It is hard to imagine that following the Human Rights Committee<br /> decision from 23 January 2007, the ECHR would not rule in a similar<br /> manner to the Human Rights Committee in a future case.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Although the right to<br /> conscientious objection is derived from the right to freedom of<br /> thought, conscience and religion, it is clear that it is not limited<br /> to religious convictions. According to the Human Rights Committee's<br /> General Comment No 22, “<i>article 18 protects theistic,<br /> non-theistic and atheistic beliefs</i>”. In fact, the Human Rights<br /> Committee repeatedly recommended to States in its Concluding<br /> Observations “<i>extend the right of conscientious objection<br /> against mandatory military service to persons who hold non-religious<br /> beliefs grounded in conscience</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote6anc" href="#sdfootnote6sym" id="sdfootnote6anc"><sup>6</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The question of<br /> “selective” conscientious objection, not to war in general but to<br /> a particular war, has not been dealt with very much. However, the<br /> United Nations General Assembly, in its resolution 33/165 from 20<br /> December 1978, recognised “<i>the right of all persons to refuse<br /> service in military or police forces which are used to enforce<br /> apartheid</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote7anc" href="#sdfootnote7sym" id="sdfootnote7anc"><sup>7</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">It is also important to<br /> note that it is not allowed to exclude groups of people from the<br /> right to conscientious objection, for example for having a gun<br /> license or other reasons.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>► Right to conscientious objection at any time – before, during and after<br /> service</h3> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Another important<br /> aspect is when an application for conscientious objection can be<br /> made. The general freedom to change one's religion or belief is<br /> recognised in Article 18(1) of the Covenant. Thus, the Human Rights<br /> Committee recognised in its Concluding Observations on Chile, that<br /> “<i>conscientious objection can </i><i>occur at any time, even when<br /> a person’s military service has already begun</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote8anc" href="#sdfootnote8sym" id="sdfootnote8anc"><sup>8</sup></a>.<br /> The Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 1998/77 highlighted<br /> “<i>that persons performing military service may develop<br /> conscientious objections</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote9anc" href="#sdfootnote9sym" id="sdfootnote9anc"><sup>9</sup></a>.<br /> The European Parliament, in its resolution from 13 October 1989,<br /> called “<i>for the right to be granted to all conscripts at any<br /> time to refuse military service, whether armed or unarmed, on grounds<br /> of conscience</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote10anc" href="#sdfootnote10sym" id="sdfootnote10anc"><sup>10</sup></a>.<br /> In its 1994 resolution, the European Parliament explicitly called “<i>on<br /> the Member States of the European Union which do not have (or no<br /> longer have) conscription and military and civilian service<br /> nevertheless to guarantee the fundamental right of conscientious<br /> objection</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote11anc" href="#sdfootnote11sym" id="sdfootnote11anc"><sup>11</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><i>Council of Europe<br /> Parliamentary Assembly</i> Recommendation 1518 (2001) explicitly<br /> recognised “<i>the right to be registered as a conscientious<br /> objector at any time: before, during or after conscription, or<br /> performance of military service</i>” and “<i>the right for<br /> permanent members of the armed forces to apply for the granting of<br /> conscientious objector status</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote12anc" href="#sdfootnote12sym" id="sdfootnote12anc"><sup>12</sup></a>.<br /> The Parliamentary Assembly also demanded from member states on 24<br /> March 2006 in a decision on human rights in the Armed Forces to<br /> “<i>introduce into their legislation the right to be registered as<br /> a conscientious objector at any time, namely before, during or after<br /> implementation of military service, as well as the right of career<br /> servicemen to obtain the status of conscientious objector</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote13anc" href="#sdfootnote13sym" id="sdfootnote13anc"><sup>13</sup></a>.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>► Impartial decision making procedure</h3> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The United Nations<br /> Commission on Human Rights has welcomed “<i>the fact that some<br /> States accept claims of conscientious objection as valid without<br /> inquiry</i>”, and called for “<i>independent and impartial<br /> decision-making bodies</i>” where this is not the case<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote14anc" href="#sdfootnote14sym" id="sdfootnote14anc"><sup>14</sup></a>.<br /> More concretely, it has expressed its concern that “<i>the<br /> assessment of applications for such service is solely under the<br /> control of the Ministry of Defence</i>”. It therefore recommended<br /> “<i>placing the assessment of applications for conscientious<br /> objector status under the control of civilian authorities</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote15anc" href="#sdfootnote15sym" id="sdfootnote15anc"><sup>15</sup></a>.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>► Non-punitive substitute service</h3> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">It first has to be<br /> noted that there does not have to be a substitute service. However,<br /> if a state decides to require a substitute service from conscientious<br /> objectors, then this substitute service has to be compatible with the<br /> reasons for the conscientious objection, of civilian character, in<br /> the public interest and not of a punitive nature. The term “punitive”<br /> covers not only the duration of substitute service, but also the type<br /> of service and the conditions under which it is served.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In terms of length of<br /> substitute service, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has<br /> made clear in <i>Foin v. France</i> that any difference in length<br /> must be “<i>based on reasonable and objective criteria, such as the<br /> nature of the specific service concerned, or the need for a special<br /> training in order to accomplish that service</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote16anc" href="#sdfootnote16sym" id="sdfootnote16anc"><sup>16</sup></a>.<br /> This means that any general difference in length, as is the practice<br /> in many countries, is not permitted.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>► Provision of information</h3> <p></p><p>It<br /> is obvious that the provision of information about a right is crucial<br /> for people to make use of that right. Therefore, the United Nations<br /> Commission on Human Rights affirmed in its resolution 1998/77 “<i>the<br /> importance of the availability of information about the right to<br /> conscientious objection to military service, and the means of<br /> acquiring conscientious objector status, to all persons affected by<br /> military service</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote17anc" href="#sdfootnote17sym" id="sdfootnote17anc"><sup>17</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p>Council<br /> of Europe Recommendation No. R (87) 8 says that “<i>persons liable<br /> to conscription shall be informed in advance of their rights. For<br /> this purpose, the state shall provide them with all relevant<br /> information directly or allow private organizations concerned to<br /> furnish that information</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote18anc" href="#sdfootnote18sym" id="sdfootnote18anc"><sup>18</sup></a>.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h2>2. Practice in European Union member states</h2> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">From the 27 European<br /> Union member states, 10 presently maintain conscription, although of<br /> these two – Poland and Sweden – are presently in the process of<br /> suspending conscription. However, most countries that did have<br /> conscription in the recent past did not just abolish it, but mainly<br /> suspended to enforce conscription. In most cases these countries<br /> maintain laws and regulations which allow to enforce conscription<br /> under certain circumstances, i.e. in situations of war or an<br /> emergency.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Presently, all<br /> countries of the European Union that maintain conscription do provide<br /> for the right to conscientious objection in some form. However, this<br /> does not mean that this would comply with the international standards<br /> set out in the introduction.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><i>Table 1: Overview:<br /> conscription and the right to conscientious objection in the European<br /> Union</i></p> <p></p><table frame="VOID" cellspacing="0" cols="5" rules="NONE" border="0"><br /> <colgroup><col width="170" /><col width="125" /><col width="114" /><col width="128" /><col width="153" /></colgroup><br /> <tbody><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" rowspan="2" width="170" height="55" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Country</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" rowspan="2" width="125" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Conscription</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" colspan="2" width="242" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>CO for conscripts</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" rowspan="2" width="153" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>CO for professional soldiers</b></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER"><b>before military service</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER"><b>during and after military service</b></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Austria</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Belgium</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Bulgaria</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Cyprus</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Czech Republic</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Denmark</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Estonia</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Finland</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">France</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER"><br /></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Germany</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Greece</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Hungary</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Ireland</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Italy</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER"><br /></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Latvia</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER"><br /></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Lithuania</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Luxembourg</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Malta</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Netherlands</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Poland</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Portugal</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Romania</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Slovakia</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Slovenia</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Spain</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Suspended</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER"><br /></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">Sweden</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT">United Kingdom</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">No</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">n.a.</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER">Yes</td><br /> </tr><br /> </tbody><br /> </table><br /> <p align="right">War Resisters' International 2008</p> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">A more detailed look is<br /> provided in Table 2. However, in some cases, the details as<br /> prescribed by law are not known.<br /> </p> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In several EU Member<br /> States not everyone has a right to conscientious objection. In some<br /> countries, such as Greece, certain groups cannot apply for<br /> conscientious objector status. In Greece, anyone having a gun license<br /> or with a criminal record cannot apply for conscientious objection.<br /> In Estonia, the situation is a bit unclear, but the wording of the<br /> law makes it likely that conscientious objection is only recognised<br /> for religious reasons. The same applies for Lithuania.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In Poland, the right to<br /> conscientious objection is only available in times of peace.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In many countries, the<br /> right to conscientious objection is not available at any time. As<br /> Table 1 shows, this right is often not available during or after<br /> military service. Often, there are strict time limits for the<br /> submission of an application for conscientious objection, which again<br /> limits this right.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; page-break-before: always"><br /> <i>Table 2: Practice right to conscientious objection in countries<br /> which enforce conscription</i></p><br /> <table frame="VOID" cellspacing="0" cols="6" rules="NONE" border="0"><br /> <colgroup><col width="145" /><col width="125" /><col width="106" /><col width="100" /><col width="110" /><col width="170" /></colgroup><br /> <tbody><br /> <tr><br /> <td width="145" height="32" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b><br /></b></td><br /> <td width="125" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Right to CO</b></td><br /> <td width="106" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>At any time?</b></td><br /> <td width="100" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Impartial decision making</b></td><br /> <td width="110" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Substitute service</b></td><br /> <td width="170" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Other</b></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="32" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Austria</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">Problem of low payments for CO in substitute service</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Cyprus</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE">?</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><br /></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Denmark</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><br /></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="47" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Estonia</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE">?</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">Not clear whether substitute service is genuinely civilian</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="32" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Finland</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">Imprisonment of total objectors</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="47" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Germany</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">Repeated disciplinary punishment of total objectors</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="47" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Greece</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">Especially problems with old cases (Lazaros Petromelidis)</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Lithuania</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE">?</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><br /></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="17" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Poland *)</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔ ()</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol"></font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><br /></td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" height="32" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE"><b>Sweden **)</b></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE"><font face="OpenSymbol">✔</font></td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="CENTER" valign="MIDDLE">-</td><br /> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: 1px solid #000000; border-right: 1px solid #000000" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">Presently no substitute service</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td colspan="6" height="17" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">*) Conscription will be suspended in 2009</td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td colspan="6" height="17" align="LEFT" valign="MIDDLE">**) Conscription under review, likely to be suspended</td><br /> </tr><br /> </tbody><br /> </table><br /> <p class="western" align="RIGHT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">War<br /> Resisters' International, 2009</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The decision making<br /> procedure is another issue of concern. In many countries, an<br /> application will be decided by the Ministry of Defence or some<br /> administration under the Ministry of Defence. While in Finland for<br /> example all applications are more or less automatically granted<br /> without examination, and therefore it does not create a problem, in<br /> countries where there is some examination of the reasons given for<br /> conscientious objection, this is much more problematic. In Greece,<br /> non-religious conscientious objectors for example have difficulties<br /> getting recognised by the Ministry of Defence. In Poland, the rate of<br /> accepted CO applications is low, compared to other countries. Only<br /> about 60% of CO applications are granted<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote19anc" href="#sdfootnote19sym" id="sdfootnote19anc"><sup>19</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Problematic is<br /> especially the issue of substitute service for conscientious<br /> objectors. In most countries – with the exception of Denmark and<br /> Germany – substitute service is longer than military service,<br /> sometimes considerably longer. The European Committee on Social<br /> Rights complained about the length of substitute service in the cases<br /> of Cyprus<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote20anc" href="#sdfootnote20sym" id="sdfootnote20anc"><sup>20</sup></a>,<br /> Estonia<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote21anc" href="#sdfootnote21sym" id="sdfootnote21anc"><sup>21</sup></a>,<br /> Greece<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote22anc" href="#sdfootnote22sym" id="sdfootnote22anc"><sup>22</sup></a>,<br /> and Finland<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote23anc" href="#sdfootnote23sym" id="sdfootnote23anc"><sup>23</sup></a>.<br /> Also the United Nations Human Rights Committee has repeatedly<br /> complained about the length of substitute service<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote24anc" href="#sdfootnote24sym" id="sdfootnote24anc"><sup>24</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">While the Euopean<br /> Committee for Social Rights considers a substitute service of 1.5<br /> times the length of military service as in compliance with the<br /> European Social Charta, the United Nations Human Rights Committee<br /> also considers a substitute service of 1.5 times the length of<br /> military service as punitive in length<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote25anc" href="#sdfootnote25sym" id="sdfootnote25anc"><sup>25</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In some European Union<br /> Member states conscientious objectors face prosecution and<br /> imprisonment. In the case of Greece, this is especially case for some<br /> cases of conscientious objectors going back to the time before Greece<br /> introduced the right to conscientious objection (i.e. the case of<br /> Lazaros Petromelidis<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote26anc" href="#sdfootnote26sym" id="sdfootnote26anc"><sup>26</sup></a>),<br /> or for conscientious objectors who are not recognised.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In Finland, total<br /> objectors, who refuse substitute service for a variety of reasons,<br /> among them often the punitive length of substitute service, are<br /> routinely imprisoned for half the time they would have had to serve.<br /> According to the Union of COs Finland, there are about 60-80 cases<br /> every year.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In Germany, total<br /> objectors face repeated disciplinary punishment by the military<br /> authorities, often 3-4 terms of imprisonment up to a total of 63<br /> days. According to a decree of the Ministry of Defence from 21 April<br /> 2008<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote27anc" href="#sdfootnote27sym" id="sdfootnote27anc"><sup>27</sup></a>,<br /> total objectors should not be released from the military before they<br /> have not served at least two arrests of 21 days each. This decree is<br /> a clear violation of Article 14, paragraph 7 of the International<br /> Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which prohibits the repeated<br /> punishment for the same offence<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote28anc" href="#sdfootnote28sym" id="sdfootnote28anc"><sup>28</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <br /><br /> <h2 class="western">3. Conscientious objection for professional<br /> soldiers</h2> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">As stated in the<br /> overview, only three European Union Member states – Germany, the<br /> Netherlands, and the United Kingdom – recognise the right to<br /> conscientious objection for professional soldiers.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>Countries without the right to conscientious<br /> objection for professional soldiers</h3> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In countries where<br /> professional soldiers do not have the right to conscientious<br /> objection, it is likely that those wishing to leave the Armed Forces<br /> for reasons of conscience might seek other ways to get a discharge.<br /> However, these other ways rarely constitute a right to be discharged,<br /> especially in situations of war or an emergency.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The Greek case of<br /> <i>Giorgios Monastiriotis</i><a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote29anc" href="#sdfootnote29sym" id="sdfootnote29anc"><sup>29</sup></a>,<br /> who initially signed up to the Greek navy on a five year contract,<br /> highlights the problems. In May 2003 <i>Giorgos Monstaritiotis</i><br /> refused to embark with the crew of the battleship "Navarino"<br /> on a mission to the Persian Gulf. He declared his immediate<br /> resignation from the Navy instead. The Navarino was sailing to the<br /> Persian Gulf as part of operation "Enduring Freedom".<br /> <i>Giorgos Monastiriotis</i> gave the following statement prior to<br /> his refusal in May 2003: "<i>Acting on the basis of my<br /> conscience, I refuse to take part or contribute by any means in the<br /> relentless slaughter of the Iraqi people. I refuse to take part in a<br /> war that is not ended, as even now after its official end people and<br /> among them many children are being killed. Even if this war is<br /> officially finished, many more are to come, as war is necessary for<br /> the expansion of the dominance of the ruling powers. I declare my<br /> immediate resignation from the Hellenic Navy, which is a mechanism<br /> that promotes inhuman practices through orders and hierarchy and acts<br /> as a means of extortion and repression of the movement and the<br /> uprisings of the people. My refusal is also the minimal act of<br /> solidarity due to the Iraqi people and to the peaceful sentiments of<br /> the Greek people.</i>"</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">As Greece does not<br /> recognise the right to conscientious objection for professional<br /> soldiers, <i>Giorgios Monastiriotis</i> had no other options than to<br /> simply declare his conscientious objection. What followed were<br /> several trials and prison sentences, and also new call-ups to<br /> military service<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote30anc" href="#sdfootnote30sym" id="sdfootnote30anc"><sup>30</sup></a>.<br /> Giorgios Monastiriotis has been sentenced to 24 months' imprisonment,<br /> suspended for three years, on 31 October 2006, and even today has<br /> still an open case for desertion, following a third call-up to<br /> military service<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote31anc" href="#sdfootnote31sym" id="sdfootnote31anc"><sup>31</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The situation is<br /> slightly different in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United<br /> Kingdom, the three countries that recognise the right to<br /> conscientious objection for professional soldiers. However, in these<br /> countries too the situation is not without problems.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>Netherlands</h3><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In the Netherlands, the<br /> legal basis for the right to conscientious objection for professional<br /> soldiers is only a decree of the Ministry of Defence from 1 January<br /> 1994<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote32anc" href="#sdfootnote32sym" id="sdfootnote32anc"><sup>32</sup></a>,<br /> which extends the law on conscientious objection, which only applies<br /> to conscripts, also to professional soldiers. It is important to note<br /> that according to the Ministry of Defence in 2004, professional<br /> soldiers who have a conscientious objection to particular campaigns<br /> of the armed forces, for example deployment in Iraq, do not have the<br /> right to claim conscientious objection to participation in these<br /> particular campaigns<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote33anc" href="#sdfootnote33sym" id="sdfootnote33anc"><sup>33</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In practice, there have<br /> been several trials against soldiers refusing to deploy to<br /> Afghanistan. In 2007 the appeal court in Arnhem acquitted a soldier<br /> who refused to deploy to Afghanistan, after he had initially been<br /> sentenced to two months imprisonment. There was also a second case of<br /> refusal, which lead to a prosecution. However, a second person has<br /> also been finally acquitted in December 2007<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote34anc" href="#sdfootnote34sym" id="sdfootnote34anc"><sup>34</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Presently, War<br /> Resisters' International is not aware of any statistics on the number<br /> of applications for a discharge as conscientious objector in the<br /> Netherlands.</p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>Germany</h3> <p></p><p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In Germany, the right<br /> to conscientious objection applies equally to conscripts and<br /> professional soldiers.<br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><i>Table 3:<br /> Conscientious objection – applications from soldiers since 2001</i></p><br /> <table width="100%" border="1" bordercolor="#000000" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0"><br /> <col width="52*" /><br /> <col width="34*" /><br /> <col width="33*" /><br /> <col width="34*" /><br /> <col width="34*" /><br /> <col width="34*" /><br /> <col width="37*" /><br /> <tr valign="TOP"><br /> <td width="20%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western"><br /><br /> </p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER"><b>2001</b></p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER"><b>2002</b></p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER"><b>2003</b></p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER"><b>2004</b></p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER"><b>2005</b></p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="14%" bgcolor="#000000"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER"><b>2006</b></p><br /> </td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td width="20%" valign="TOP"><br /> <p class="western">Conscripts</p><br /> <p class="western">/voluntary military service</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2386</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2242</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1669</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1861</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1568</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="14%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2203</p><br /> </td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td width="20%" valign="TOP"><br /> <p class="western">Contract soldiers</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">62</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">79</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">71</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">73</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">70</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="14%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">65</p><br /> </td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td width="20%" valign="TOP"><br /> <p class="western">Professional soldiers</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">0</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">0</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="14%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1</p><br /> </td><br /> </tr><br /> <tr><br /> <td width="20%" valign="TOP"><br /> <p class="western">Total</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2448</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2322</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1740</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1936</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="13%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">1639</p><br /> </td><br /> <td width="14%"><br /> <p class="western" align="CENTER">2269</p><br /> </td><br /> </tr><br /> </table><br /> <p class="western" align="RIGHT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Source:<br /> Antwort des Parlamentarischen Staatssekretärs Thomas Kossendey, 9<br /> May 2007<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote35anc" href="#sdfootnote35sym" id="sdfootnote35anc"><sup>35</sup></a></p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Problematic<br /> is especially that the military authorities regard a release from the<br /> armed forces which is based on conscientious objection as a release<br /> on someone's own initiative. This means that a professional soldier<br /> who has been recognised as a conscientious objector needs to pay back<br /> the costs of any courses that (s)he has followed in the military and<br /> that have a civilian use. This can lead to a considerable financial<br /> burden, almost making it impossible to leave the Armed Forces.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The case of<br /> Florian Pfaff highlighted another problem with the right to<br /> conscientious objection. However, as Florian Pfaff did not claim<br /> conscientious objection, but refused an order that he regarded as<br /> illegal, his case falls more under the category of the right to<br /> refuse illegal orders. In its judgement, the Bundesverwaltungsgericht<br /> however acquitted Florian Pfaff based on freedom of conscience. The<br /> Bundesverwaltungsgericht stated in its judgement: “<i>A soldier<br /> does not have to carry out an order, on the ground that it is<br /> unreasonable, if he can invoke protection of the fundamental right to<br /> freedom of conscience (Article 4(1) of the Basic Law). The protection<br /> afforded by Article 4(1) of the Basic Law is not overridden by the<br /> fundamental right to recognition as a conscientious objector (Article<br /> 4(3) of the Basic Law).</i>” And: “<i>If (...) the soldier still<br /> maintains that his conscience will not allow him to carry out the<br /> order, and if this is understandable in the sense described earlier,<br /> then a compromise must be reached which protects both sides (use<br /> elsewhere, transfer, reassignment, etc.).</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote36anc" href="#sdfootnote36sym" id="sdfootnote36anc"><sup>36</sup></a></p><br /> <br /><br /> <h3>United Kingdom</h3> <p></p><p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">In the<br /> United Kingdom, each of the three branches of the Armed Forces has<br /> its own regulations governing the right to conscientious objection.<br /> Especially problematic is that the regulations governing the right to<br /> conscientious objection are not in the public domain, and information<br /> is difficult to obtain by members of the public, and also by members<br /> of the Armed Forces. In addition, decision making on an application<br /> for conscientious objection in the first instance is by the<br /> respective branch of the Armed Forces itself, and not by an<br /> independent body. Only the appeal body – the Advisory Committee on<br /> Conscientious Objectors – is an independent body.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The<br /> regulations are:</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <ul><br /> <li><p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Instruction<br /> 006 – Retirement or Discharge on Grounds of Conscience for the<br /> Army, including the Territorial Army;</p><br /> </li><li><p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">AP3392<br /> Vol 5. Leaflet 113, Procedure for Dealing with Conscientious<br /> Objectors within the Royal Air Force for the Air Force;</p><br /> </li><li><p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Personnel,<br /> Legal, Administrative and General Orders 0801, Application for<br /> Discharge on Grounds of Conscientious Objection for the Navy.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"></p><br /> </li></ul><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">While the<br /> application procedure is similar for the three branches of the Armed<br /> Forces, there are also important differences.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">It has to be<br /> pointed out that for all three services an application for discharge<br /> on grounds of conscience does not prevent deployment. During the time<br /> the application is being processed, the applicant remains a member of<br /> the Armed Forces with all duties this implies. There is no right to<br /> ask for service without arms during the processing of the CO<br /> application.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">The<br /> regulations for the Royal Air Force also do not allow an application<br /> for conscientious objection from a soldier who is absent without<br /> leave or a deserter, or subject of outstanding disciplinary action.<br /> This is problematic as it is not uncommon for conscientious objectors<br /> to go absent without leave for a short period, as especially<br /> experience from the United States of America shows.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">There are<br /> very few cases of conscientious objection in the UK Armed Forces<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote37anc" href="#sdfootnote37sym" id="sdfootnote37anc"><sup>37</sup></a>.<br /> One explanation for this is the lack of information. This lack of<br /> access to and knowledge about the right to conscientious objection<br /> has also been an issue in the case of reservist Leading Aircraftsman<br /> Mohisin Khan, who went absent without leave when recalled for<br /> service. He claimed that he was not aware of the right to<br /> conscientious objection. In its judgement, the High Court says “<i>It<br /> is, however, true that the call-out materials in this case, like the<br /> 1997 Regulations, do not mention conscientious objection expressly.<br /> In that respect, it would seem that the information provided to the<br /> recalled reservist could be improved</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote38anc" href="#sdfootnote38sym" id="sdfootnote38anc"><sup>38</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">According to<br /> military law expert Gilbert Blades, who represents soldiers at courts<br /> martial, the numbers leaving because of Iraq are often obscured as<br /> they were not counted as conscientious objectors<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote39anc" href="#sdfootnote39sym" id="sdfootnote39anc"><sup>39</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Two<br /> high-profile cases of Iraq war resisters underline this point.<br /> Benjamin Griffin, a former SAS soldier, refused to return to Iraq<br /> while on leave in March 2005 after three month of service in Baghdad.<br /> Unexpectedly, he was discharged from the army “<i>with a glowing<br /> testimonial</i>”<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote40anc" href="#sdfootnote40sym" id="sdfootnote40anc"><sup>40</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Malcolm<br /> Kendall-Smith, a medical officer in the Royal Air Force, fared less<br /> well. He refused to serve in Iraq in July 2005, and was subsequently<br /> court-martialed, and sentenced to eight month imprisonment, plus a<br /> discharge from the Air Force<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote41anc" href="#sdfootnote41sym" id="sdfootnote41anc"><sup>41</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm">Both cases<br /> are again on the borderline to the right to refuse illegal orders.<br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <br /><br /> <h2>4. Conclusions</h2> <p></p><p class="western">While all European Union Member states that<br /> practice conscription recognise the right to conscientious objection<br /> for conscripts, the implementation of this right is in most cases not<br /> compliant with the international standards as set out by United<br /> Nations bodies, the Council of Europe, and the European Parliament.</p><br /> <p class="western">Only very few countries accept an application for<br /> conscientious objection at any time – before, during and after<br /> military service – and in many cases the decision making procedure<br /> is not impartial. Also, in many cases the substitute service is of<br /> punitive length.</p><br /> <p class="western">Regarding the right to conscientious objection for<br /> professional soldiers, the situation is even worse. Only three out of<br /> the 27 European Union Member states recognise the right to<br /> conscientious objection for professional soldiers. Also in these<br /> three countries, there are still a range of problems in practice.</p><br /> <p class="western"><br /><br /><br /> </p><br /> <p class="western" align="LEFT" style="margin-bottom: 0cm"><br /><br /> </p><br /> <div id="sdfootnote1"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote1sym" href="#sdfootnote1anc" id="sdfootnote1sym">1</a>Human<br /> Rights Committee: General Comment 22 on Article 18, 30 June 1993,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6410">http://wri-irg.org/node/6410</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote2"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote2sym" href="#sdfootnote2anc" id="sdfootnote2sym">2</a>See<br /> for example <i>Commission on Human Rights</i> resolutions 1987/73<br /> from 5 March 1987, 1989/59 from 8 March 1989<br /> (<a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6409">http://wri-irg.org/node/6409</a>),<br /> 1998/77 from 22 April 1998 (<a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6136">http://wri-irg.org/node/6136</a>),<br /> 2000/34 from 20 April 2000 (<a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6418">http://wri-irg.org/node/6418</a>),<br /> 2002/45 from 23 April 2002 (<a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6415">http://wri-irg.org/node/6415</a>),<br /> and 2004/35 from 19 April 2004 (<a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6412">http://wri-irg.org/node/6412</a>)</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote3"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote3sym" href="#sdfootnote3anc" id="sdfootnote3sym">3</a>Mr.<br /> Yeo-Bum Yoon and Mr. Myung-Jin Choi vs Republic of Korea,<br /> Communications Nos. 1321/2004 and 1322/2004 : Republic of Korea.<br /> 23/01/2007. CCPR/C/88/D/1321-1322/2004. (Jurisprudence),<br /> <a href="http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/26a8e9722d0cdadac1257279004c1b4e?Opendocument">http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/26a8e9722d0cdadac1257279004c1b4e?Opendocument</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote4"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote4sym" href="#sdfootnote4anc" id="sdfootnote4sym">4</a>OPINION<br /> No.8/2008 (Colombia), 9 May 2008,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/news/2008/colombia-opinion-es.htm">http://wri-irg.org/news/2008/colombia-opinion-es.htm</a>,<br /> Opinion No. 16/2008 (Turkey), 8 May 2008,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/272">http://wri-irg.org/node/272</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote5"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote5sym" href="#sdfootnote5anc" id="sdfootnote5sym">5</a>In<br /> its judgement in the case <font face="Liberation Sans, sans-serif"><i>Ü</i></font><font face="Liberation Sans"><i>lke<br /> v. Turkey</i></font><font face="Liberation Sans"> (39437/98) from 26<br /> January 2006, the court ruled in favour of </font><font face="Liberation Sans, sans-serif">Ü</font><font face="Liberation Sans">lke<br /> on the grounds of article 3 of the European Convention. However,<br /> regarding a violation of article 9, the court said in its judgement<br /> “</font><font face="Liberation Sans"><i>that it is not necessary<br /> to give a separate ruling on the complaints under Articles 5, 8 and<br /> 9 of the Convention</i></font><font face="Liberation Sans">” (see<br /> </font><a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/615"><font face="Liberation Sans">http://wri-irg.org/node/615</font></a><font face="Liberation Sans">).<br /> </font><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote6"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote6sym" href="#sdfootnote6anc" id="sdfootnote6sym">6</a>Human<br /> Rights Committee, Concluding observations of the Human Rights<br /> Committee: UKRAINE, 28 November 2006,<br /> <a href="http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G06/458/07/PDF/G0645807.pdf?OpenElement">http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G06/458/07/PDF/G0645807.pdf?OpenElement</a>,<br /> accessed 8 January 2009</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote7"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote7sym" href="#sdfootnote7anc" id="sdfootnote7sym">7</a>Status<br /> of persons refusing service in military or police forces used to<br /> enforce apartheid, United Nations General Assembly resolution 33/165<br /> from 20 December 1978, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6428">http://wri-irg.org/node/6428</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote8"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote8sym" href="#sdfootnote8anc" id="sdfootnote8sym">8</a>Human<br /> Rights Committee: Concluding observations of the Human Rights<br /> Committee: CHILE, 18 May 2007, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6429">http://wri-irg.org/node/6429</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote9"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote9sym" href="#sdfootnote9anc" id="sdfootnote9sym">9</a>Commission<br /> on Human Rights: Conscientious objection to military service<br /> (Resolution 1998/77), 22 April 1998, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6136">http://wri-irg.org/node/6136</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote10"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote10sym" href="#sdfootnote10anc" id="sdfootnote10sym">10</a>European<br /> Parliament: Resolution on conscientious objection and alternative<br /> civilian service (Schmidbauer Resolution), 13 October 1989,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6376">http://wri-irg.org/node/6376</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote11"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote11sym" href="#sdfootnote11anc" id="sdfootnote11sym">11</a>European<br /> Parliament: Resolution on conscientious objection in the Member<br /> States of the Community (Bandrés Molet &amp; Bindi Resolution), 19<br /> June 1994, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6375">http://wri-irg.org/node/6375</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote12"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote12sym" href="#sdfootnote12anc" id="sdfootnote12sym">12</a>Parliamentary<br /> Assembly of the Council of Europe: Recommendation 1518 (2001), 23<br /> May 2001, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6379">http://wri-irg.org/node/6379</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote13"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote13sym" href="#sdfootnote13anc" id="sdfootnote13sym">13</a>Parliamentary<br /> Assembly of the Council of Europe: Human rights of members of the<br /> armed forces, Doc. 10861, 24 March 2006,<br /> <a href="http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents?/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC10861.htm">http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents?/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC10861.htm</a>,<br /> accessed 9 January 2009</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote14"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote14sym" href="#sdfootnote14anc" id="sdfootnote14sym">14</a>United<br /> Nations Commission on Human Rights: Resolution 1998/77 from 22 April<br /> 1998, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6136">http://wri-irg.org/node/6136</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote15"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote15sym" href="#sdfootnote15anc" id="sdfootnote15sym">15</a>Concluding<br /> observations of the Human Rights Committee: GREECE, 25 April 2005,<br /> <a href="http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.CO.83.GRC.En?OpenDocument">http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.CO.83.GRC.En?OpenDocument</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote16"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote16sym" href="#sdfootnote16anc" id="sdfootnote16sym">16</a>Frédéric<br /> Foin v. France, CCPR/C/67/D/666/1995, 9 November 1999,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6140">http://wri-irg.org/node/6140</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote17"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote17sym" href="#sdfootnote17anc" id="sdfootnote17sym">17</a>Commission<br /> on Human Rights: Conscientious objection to military service<br /> (Resolution 1998/77), 22 April 1998, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6136">http://wri-irg.org/node/6136</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote18"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote18sym" href="#sdfootnote18anc" id="sdfootnote18sym">18</a>Recommendation<br /> No. R(87)8 of the Committee of Ministers to member states regarding<br /> conscientious objection to compulsory military service, 9 April<br /> 1997, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6378">http://wri-irg.org/node/6378</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote19"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote19sym" href="#sdfootnote19anc" id="sdfootnote19sym">19</a>The<br /> Right to Conscientious Objection in Europe, Quaker Council for<br /> European Affairs, 2005,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/4302/revisions/4372/view">http://wri-irg.org/node/4302/revisions/4372/view</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote20"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote20sym" href="#sdfootnote20anc" id="sdfootnote20sym">20</a>European<br /> Committee of Social Rights: Conclusions 2008 – Volume 1 (Albania,<br /> Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia,<br /> Finland, France, Georgia, Ireland, Italy),<br /> <a href="http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/Year/2008Vol1_en.pdf">http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/Year/2008Vol1_en.pdf</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote21"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote21sym" href="#sdfootnote21anc" id="sdfootnote21sym">21</a>European<br /> Committee of Social Rights: Conclusions 2008 – Volume 1 (Albania,<br /> Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia,<br /> Finland, France, Georgia, Ireland, Italy),<br /> <a href="http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/Year/2008Vol1_en.pdf">http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/Year/2008Vol1_en.pdf</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote22"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote22sym" href="#sdfootnote22anc" id="sdfootnote22sym">22</a>European<br /> Committee of Social Rights: Conclusions XVIII-1 (Greece), Articles<br /> 1, 12, 13, 16 and 19 of the Charter, 2006,<br /> <a href="http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/State/GreeceXVIII1_en.pdf">http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/State/GreeceXVIII1_en.pdf</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote23"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote23sym" href="#sdfootnote23anc" id="sdfootnote23sym">23</a>European<br /> Committee of Social Rights: Conclusions 2008 – Volume 1 (Albania,<br /> Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia,<br /> Finland, France, Georgia, Ireland, Italy),<br /> <a href="http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/Year/2008Vol1_en.pdf">http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/Year/2008Vol1_en.pdf</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote24"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote24sym" href="#sdfootnote24anc" id="sdfootnote24sym">24</a>See<br /> for example: Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee:<br /> LITHUANIA, 4 May 2004, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6473">http://wri-irg.org/node/6473</a>;<br /> Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: FINLAND, 2<br /> December 2004,<br /> <a href="http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G04/449/95/PDF/G0444995.pdf?OpenElement">http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G04/449/95/PDF/G0444995.pdf?OpenElement</a>;<br /> Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: POLAND, 2</p> <p> December 2004,<br /> <a href="http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G04/450/09/PDF/G0445009.pdf?OpenElement">http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G04/450/09/PDF/G0445009.pdf?OpenElement</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote25"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote25sym" href="#sdfootnote25anc" id="sdfootnote25sym">25</a>Concluding<br /> observations of the Human Rights Committee: POLAND, 2 December 2004,<br /> <a href="http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G04/450/09/PDF/G0445009.pdf?OpenElement">http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G04/450/09/PDF/G0445009.pdf?OpenElement</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote26"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote26sym" href="#sdfootnote26anc" id="sdfootnote26sym">26</a>For<br /> an overview of the case, see <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/4053">http://wri-irg.org/node/4053</a>.</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote27"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote27sym" href="#sdfootnote27anc" id="sdfootnote27sym">27</a>Vorzeitige<br /> Entlassung von Grundwehrdienstleistenden (GWDL)/freiwilligen<br /> zusätzlichen Wehrdienst Leistenden (FWDL) gemäß § 29 Abs. 1 Satz<br /> 3 Nr. 5 und Abs. 4 Nr. 2 des Wehrpflichtgesetzes,<br /> <a href="http://www.kampagne.de/Recht/Dokumente/TKDV_Erlass.php">http://www.kampagne.de/Recht/Dokumente/TKDV_Erlass.php</a>,<br /> accessed 14 January 2009</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote28"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote28sym" href="#sdfootnote28anc" id="sdfootnote28sym">28</a>See<br /> also Human Rights Committee: General Comment 32 on Article 14,<br /> CCPR/C/GC/32, 23 August 2007,<br /> <a href="http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G07/437/71/PDF/G0743771.pdf?OpenElement">http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G07/437/71/PDF/G0743771.pdf?OpenElement</a>;<br /> United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention: OPINION No.<br /> 24/2003 (ISRAEL), 28 November 2003, <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/6481">http://wri-irg.org/node/6481</a>,<br /> OPINION No. 36/1999 (TURKEY), 2 December 1999,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/1600">http://wri-irg.org/node/1600</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote29"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote29sym" href="#sdfootnote29anc" id="sdfootnote29sym">29</a>An<br /> overview of the case is available at <a href="http://wri-irg.org/node/5017">http://wri-irg.org/node/5017</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote30"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote30sym" href="#sdfootnote30anc" id="sdfootnote30sym">30</a>War<br /> Resisters' International: Conscientious objection to military<br /> service in Greece: Human Rights shortfalls, 1 February 2005,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/news/2005/greece05a-en.htm">http://wri-irg.org/news/2005/greece05a-en.htm</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote31"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote31sym" href="#sdfootnote31anc" id="sdfootnote31sym">31</a>Emails<br /> Alexia Tsouni, Association of Greek Conscientious Objectors, 15<br /> January 2009</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote32"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote32sym" href="#sdfootnote32anc" id="sdfootnote32sym">32</a>Aanwijzing<br /> inzake Gewetensbezwaren militaire dienst, 1 January 1994,<br /> <a href="http://mpbundels.mindef.nl/31_serie/31_112/31_112_1150.htm">http://mpbundels.mindef.nl/31_serie/31_112/31_112_1150.htm</a>,<br /> accessed 15 January 2009</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote33"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote33sym" href="#sdfootnote33anc" id="sdfootnote33sym">33</a>Information<br /> provided by the Netherlands Ministry of Defence, November 2004,<br /> referenced in Quaker Council for European Affairs: The Right to<br /> Conscientious Objection in Europe, 2005,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/co/rtba/netherlands.htm">http://wri-irg.org/co/rtba/netherlands.htm</a>,<br /> accessed 11 August 2008.</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote34"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote34sym" href="#sdfootnote34anc" id="sdfootnote34sym">34</a>War<br /> Resisters' International: World Survey Conscientious Objection and<br /> Recruitment, Netherlands, 23 October 2008,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/programmes/world_survey/reports/Netherlands">http://wri-irg.org/programmes/world_survey/reports/Netherlands</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote35"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote35sym" href="#sdfootnote35anc" id="sdfootnote35sym">35</a>Antwort<br /> des Parlamentarischen Staatssekretärs Thomas Kossendey, 9 May 2007:<br /> Kriegsdienstverweigerung – Antragstellungen von Soldaten seit 2001<br /> nach Statusgruppen und insgesamt,<br /> <a href="http://dip.bundestag.de/btd/16/053/1605317.pdf">http://dip.bundestag.de/btd/16/053/1605317.pdf</a>,<br /> accessed 15 January 2009</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote36"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote36sym" href="#sdfootnote36anc" id="sdfootnote36sym">36</a>Notes<br /> on the acquittal of a German military officer who refused to carry<br /> out a military order in connection with the Iraq War,<br /> <a href="http://wri-irg.org/news/2006/pfaff-en.htm">http://wri-irg.org/news/2006/pfaff-en.htm</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote37"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote37sym" href="#sdfootnote37anc" id="sdfootnote37sym">37</a>Numbers<br /> have been obtained under the Freedom of Information Act by War<br /> Resisters' International, and also by the Quakers. However, these<br /> numbers do not add up. According to the information obtained by War<br /> Resisters' International, only six individuals (3 RAF personnel, 3<br /> Navy personnel) have applied for discharge on the grounds of<br /> conscientious objection since 2000. Of these cases, five were<br /> successful (3 RAF personnel, 2 Navy personnel). It is interesting<br /> that according to information obtained by David Gee in March 2007,<br /> from April 2001 to March 2006 there had been four successful<br /> applications, all from Air Force personnel, and none for the Navy or<br /> Army.</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote38"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote38sym" href="#sdfootnote38anc" id="sdfootnote38sym">38</a>Mohisin<br /> Khan v RAF, [2004] EWHC (2230), paragraph 57,<br /> <a href="http://www.hmcourts-service.gov.uk/judgmentsfiles/j2822/khan-v-raf.htm">http://www.hmcourts-service.gov.uk/judgmentsfiles/j2822/khan-v-raf.htm</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote39"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote39sym" href="#sdfootnote39anc" id="sdfootnote39sym">39</a>At<br /> least 1,000 UK soldiers desert, BBC News, 28 May 2006,<br /> <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/5024104.stm">http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/5024104.stm</a>,<br /> accessed 1 October 2008</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote40"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote40sym" href="#sdfootnote40anc" id="sdfootnote40sym">40</a>SAS<br /> man quits in protest at 'illegal' Iraq war, The Guardian, 13 March<br /> 2006, <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1729553,00.html">http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1729553,00.html</a>,<br /> accessed 1 October 2008</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote41"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote41sym" href="#sdfootnote41anc" id="sdfootnote41sym">41</a>RAF<br /> doctor jailed over Iraq refusal, The Guardian, 13 April 2006,<br /> <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1753241,00.html">http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1753241,00.html</a>,<br /> accessed 1 October 2008</p><br /> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--upload--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--upload--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--upload.html.twig * field--default--upload--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--upload.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--upload--story.html.twig * field--node--upload.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--upload.html.twig * field--file.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-upload field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Attached file</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'file_link' --> <!-- BEGIN 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href="/en/taxonomy/term/238" hreflang="en">Cyprus</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/222" hreflang="en">Bulgaria</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/166" hreflang="en">Belgium</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/113" hreflang="en">Austria</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-institutions--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-institutions.html.twig * field--expert--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-institutions.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-institutions--story.html.twig * field--node--field-institutions.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-institutions.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Institutions</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/48" hreflang="en">European Union (EU)</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6484&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="jG2CkznV3BAHXItAtDHo4BB_14QSa60X7qKNjYUysW8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 15 Jan 2009 13:15:20 +0000 warresisters 6484 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Denmark https://wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Denmark?language=en <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--3936.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="3936" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 23 Oct 2008</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p></p><h4>Issues</h4><br /> <ul><br /> <li>Denmark still maintains conscription. The right to conscientious objection<br /> is not recognised for professional soldiers.</li><br /> </ul> <p></p><h4>Military recruitment</h4><br /> <h5>Conscription</h5><br /> <p>Conscription is enshrined in art. 81 of the 1953 Constitution, which states: "<i>All men able to bear arms are under the obligation (...) to the defence of the nation</i>"<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote1anc" href="#sdfootnote1sym" id="sdfootnote1anc"><sup>1</sup></a>.<br /> The present basis of conscription is the 2006 National Service Law (Værnepligtsloven)<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote2anc" href="#sdfootnote2sym" id="sdfootnote2anc"><sup>2</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p>The length of military service is between 3 days and 14 months, depending on the branch of the armed forces and the rank attained. Most conscripts perform a 4 months' military service.</p><br /> <p>All men between the ages of 18 and 30 are liable for military service. The National Service Law does not cover the self-governing territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland. If a young man moves to mainland Denmark after living in one of those territories for ten years or more, he is not liable for military service.</p><br /> <p>The selection of conscripts is by balloting, as the number of young men available for military service is much greater than the number considered necessary by the Danish National Forces. Selection involves drawing lots during medical examination, which takes place during newly introduced “Danish Defence Days” (Forsvarets dag). The lots are actually not drawn by the conscripts themselves but by the military authorities. Apparently this is because once somebody ate his lot ticket, which meant they had to suspend the draft that day in order to find out which lot<br /> number had been eaten.</p><br /> <p>The lot numbers range from 1 to 35,000. Firstly, conscripts who have applied to serve voluntarily are drafted, whatever lot number they might have. From the remaining conscripts only those with the lowest numbers are drafted, until the necessary amount is reached. Therefore it takes some months, before conscripts are told whether or not they must serve. Conscripts drawing a 'blank' are not called up but transferred to a reservist-category liable to be called up in wartime.</p><br /> <p>There are more conscripts than the armed forces need. Therefore in practice only 30 to 50 percent of all liable conscripts are called up for military service. Most conscripts in the armed forces have volunteered to serve<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote3anc" href="#sdfootnote3sym" id="sdfootnote3anc"><sup>3</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p>Voluntary applications for military service can be made from the age of 17 when the person has special reasons to do so, for example for reasons of education.</p> <p></p><h5>Professional soldiers</h5><br /> <p>The newly introduced “Danish Defence Days” are not only important for the recruitment of<br /> conscripts, they are also a tool to attract professional soldiers. At those days (which are also open for women), all men and women declared suitable for military service receive a presentation on<br /> Danish Defence and the emergency management services. The presentation comprises information about military service, employment and career opportunities and response force contracts, etc. After the presentation those found suitable or partly suitable for military service may, if they so wish, conclude an agreement on military service and employment following individual guidance<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote4anc" href="#sdfootnote4sym" id="sdfootnote4anc"><sup>4</sup></a>.<br /> </p><br /> <h4>Conscientious objection</h4><br /> <h5>Conscientious objection for conscripts</h5><br /> <p>The right to conscientious objection has been legally recognised since 1917. Its present legal basis is laid down in the 2006 National Service Law and the 2006 Civil Service Act (<font size="2" style="font-size: 11pt">Militærnægterloven, 226/</font>2006)<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote5anc" href="#sdfootnote5sym" id="sdfootnote5anc"><sup>5</sup></a>. Art. 1 of the Civil Service Act states: "<i>Conscripts for whom military service in any form is judged, from available information, to be incompatible with the dictates of their conscience, may (...) be exempted from military service on condition that they are engaged in other national work, which is not, however, serving any military purpose.</i>"</p><br /> <h6>Procedure</h6><br /> <p>Written applications must be made to the conscientious objection administration board of the Ministry of the Interior within four weeks of receipt of call-up papers. According to the government, all kinds of reasons of conscience (religious, ethical) are acceptable but applications based solely on political grounds are not to be granted.</p><br /> <p>There are no individual examinations of applications and in practice almost all applications are granted, provided the word conscience is mentioned. CO groups have evolved a standard formula that is said to be generally acceptable to the authorities.</p><br /> <p>Applications can be made while serving, in which case the application needs to be more elaborate and should include an explanation as to when and where the applicant's conflict of conscience took place.</p><br /> <h5>Conscientious objection for professional soldiers</h5><br /> <p>The Civil Service Act only applies to conscripts, and not to soldiers who joined the Armed Forces<br /> voluntarily. According to information provided by the Royal Danish Embassy, professional soldiers do always have the right to resign, albeit with three months notice<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote6anc" href="#sdfootnote6sym" id="sdfootnote6anc"><sup>6</sup></a>.<br /> However, certain trainings within the Armed Forces require the soldier to sign a “duty to serve” contract, the length of which depends on the duration of the training. In case a soldier wants to<br /> resign prematurely before the end of his/her contract, this might lead to repayment of training expenses.</p><br /> <h4>Draft evasion and desertion</h4><br /> <h5>penalties</h5><br /> <p>Draft evasion and desertion are punishable under the Military Penal Code, but COs are not subject to its provisions.<br /> </p><br /> <p>Desertion is punishable according to Article xx of the Military Penal Code (Militærstraffelov)<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote7anc" href="#sdfootnote7sym" id="sdfootnote7anc"><sup>7</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p>Refusal to perform substitute service is punishable by a fine and up to a year's imprisonment under art. 6 of the 2006 Civil Service Act. The length of imprisonment is equivalent to the length of time that should have been served.</p><br /> <h5>total objection</h5><br /> <p>Up to the mid-1990s, every year about 25 people refuse to perform both military and substitute service, all of them Jehovah's Witnesses. They were normally twice sentenced to a fine. After a third refusal they were sentenced to imprisonment to the length of time that they should have served. This normally meant six months' imprisonment, as the judges considered them to refuse to perform the shortest possible service. In practice total objectors were usually released when they had served half the prison sentence. Then, as a rule, they were expected to hand over DKK 9,000 to cover costs of board and lodging while in prison<a class="sdfootnoteanc" name="sdfootnote8anc" href="#sdfootnote8sym" id="sdfootnote8anc"><sup>8</sup></a>.</p><br /> <p>More recent cases of total objection are presently not known.</p> <p></p><h5>Notes</h5><br /> <div id="sdfootnote1"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote1sym" href="#sdfootnote1anc" id="sdfootnote1sym">1</a>UN<br /> Commission on Human Rights, 1994. Report of the Secretary-General<br /> prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1993/84 (and Addendum).<br /> United Nations, Geneva.</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote2"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote2sym" href="#sdfootnote2anc" id="sdfootnote2sym">2</a>Bekendtgørelse<br /> af værnepligtsloven, LBK nr 225 af 13/03/2006 Gældende,<br /> <a href="https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=6463">https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=6463</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote3"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote3sym" href="#sdfootnote3anc" id="sdfootnote3sym">3</a>Reports<br /> by Militaernaegterforeningen 1987, 1992-97.</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote4"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote4sym" href="#sdfootnote4anc" id="sdfootnote4sym">4</a>Consolidated<br /> implementation basis for “Danish Defence Agreement 2005 – 2009”,<br /> <a href="http://forsvaret.dk/NR/rdonlyres/BD0DB719-4F0F-41A4-AEDB-4F28C602FCE0/0/20050318Implementeringsnotatet6.pdf">http://forsvaret.dk/NR/rdonlyres/BD0DB719-4F0F-41A4-AEDB-4F28C602FCE0/0/20050318Implementeringsnotatet6.pdf</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote5"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote5sym" href="#sdfootnote5anc" id="sdfootnote5sym">5</a>Bekendtgørelse<br /> af lov om værnepligtens opfyldelse ved civilt arbejde, LBK nr 226<br /> af 13/03/2006, <a href="http://www.militaernaegter.dk/sw164.asp">http://www.militaernaegter.dk/sw164.asp</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote6"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote6sym" href="#sdfootnote6anc" id="sdfootnote6sym">6</a>Royal<br /> Danish Embassy: The right to conscientious objection. 13.DAN.2, 14<br /> March 2008</p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote7"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote7sym" href="#sdfootnote7anc" id="sdfootnote7sym">7</a><a href="https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=6435">https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=6435</a><br /> </p><br /> </div><br /> <div id="sdfootnote8"><br /> <p class="sdfootnote-western"><a class="sdfootnotesym" name="sdfootnote8sym" href="#sdfootnote8anc" id="sdfootnote8sym">8</a>Maeland,<br /> Henry John 1993. Accommodation of Conscience - The Scandinavian<br /> Experience.</p><br /> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--upload--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--upload--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--upload.html.twig * field--default--upload--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--upload.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--upload--story.html.twig * field--node--upload.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--upload.html.twig * field--file.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-upload field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Attached file</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'file_link' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/file/file-link.html.twig' --> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://updates.wri-irg.org/sites/default/files/public_files/Rrtk-update-2008-denmark.pdf" type="application/pdf; 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