Venezuela https://updates.wri-irg.org/en en Venezuela: WRI Executive Committee Solidarity with Laboratorio de Paz and Provea activists* https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/venezuela-wri-executive-committee-solidarity-laboratorio-de-paz-and-provea-activists <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42114.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42114" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2020-04/screenshot_2020-04-07_11.08.15.png?itok=q9VcdANi 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/png"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2020-04/screenshot_2020-04-07_11.08.15.png?itok=U9bTr-Ne 1x" type="image/png"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2020-04/screenshot_2020-04-07_11.08.15.png?itok=U9bTr-Ne" alt="WRI logo" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 29 May 2020</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The latest development in Venezuela created additional tensions not only in the country itself but across the entire region. As part pacifists and antimilitarists, War Resisters’ International Executive Committee wants to repeat, once again, that war is not an answer to any situation, and call for resistance to all preparations for war.</p> <p><strong>WRI </strong>supports all conscientious objectors from all around the world, because we consider refusing to enlist in an armed force and/or participate in war preparation as the very core of war resistance work. Therefore, we welcome anyone who at any time and for any reason (philosophical, religious, political, etc.) refuses to participate in these activities. Throughout <strong>WRI’s</strong> long history we have supported all conscientious objectors, deserters and other war resisters, even from the conflicting parties. We supported and support both US and Russian objectors as well as Colombian and Venezuelan, Turkish and Greek, Croatian and Serbian, Israeli and Egyptian conscientious objectors, etc. While every side in a conflict uses its propaganda to build the justification for participation in a war, we resist and refuse the very logic of war.</p> <p>On a global level, <strong>WRI</strong> has constantly expressed our solidarity in word and action for the oppressed, supporting those groups and people who are practicing active nonviolent responses to oppression. On the one hand, we see that there are countries that are permanently threatened with war, invasions, forceful regime changes, forceful annexations by other states, and territories being occupied, etc. On the other hand, we see that many of the threatened countries use these external threats as an excuse to reduce the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, and the right to freedom of opinion and expression, always as a part of the militaristic binary logic of diving the people in “us” vs. “them”. However, we’ve seen in the past that the two human rights mentioned above - refusing to enlist in an armed force, or to participate in war preparation - are fundamental for effective opposition to wars and war preparations, as the right to conscientious objection derives directly from them. Therefore, we express our solidarity and support to all those whose right to freedom of opinion and expression or the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion has been threatened.</p> <p>Bearing in mind the situation in Venezuela, we refuse all armed methods of solving the crisis in that country. We call for an immediate de-escalation of the situation and reject any involvement of foreign armed forces in Venezuelan internal affairs, either by constant threats of invasion, by supporting insurrectional armed groups or by providing military aid to the Venezuelan government. We reject the logic of war and permanent conflict in Venezuela and the region, and, at the same time, call for the authorities to fully guarantee the application of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion and the right to conscientious objection to all Venezuelans. In that sense, <strong>WRI Executive Committee</strong>, wants to make public our support to activists of <strong>Laboratorio de Paz </strong>and <strong>Provea</strong>, among whom are members of War Resisters' International network, that have been labelled as terrorist, threatened and criminalized by Venezuelan officials while performing their work in defense of the human rights for all in Venezuela. We want to assure them that we will not accept any form on violence against them.</p> <p> </p> <hr /> <p><u>*DISCLAIMER:</u></p> <p><em>This document signed as War Resisters' International (WRI) Executive Committee recognizes and also includes the possibility of latent disagreements, questions and reflections that we must elaborate as network in permanent dialogue and collective construction of realities, dynamics and nonviolent resistance against war and all its causes. We assume a voice that attends to an emergency and thus also the collective processes that must be organized to continue tuning our perceptions, actions and proposals. Along these same lines, we invite all the organizations involved to share or join to the reflection that this statement invites.</em><br />  </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/wri-statement" hreflang="en">WRI Statement</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42114&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="Avra3BNSNzZKNyba095UhH5J6ZiU2Oz5UeyDicRln14"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 29 May 2020 15:41:53 +0000 Natalia 42114 at https://updates.wri-irg.org War profiteer of the month: Falken SA https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2020/war-profiteer-month-falken-sa <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--42001.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="42001" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2020-01/12593095174_dcafcf1219_o.jpg?itok=dv8NuJ8w 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2020-01/12593095174_dcafcf1219_o.jpg?itok=1arQbqGx 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2020-01/12593095174_dcafcf1219_o.jpg?itok=1arQbqGx" alt="A number of police officers with tear gas launchers fire canisters towards a crowd" title="Police in Venezuela in 2014. Photo: andrewaZp/Flickr CC2.0" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 10 Jan 2020</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Falken SA is a Spanish company specialising in "less lethal" weapons and other equipment used by the police and security forces in Spain, and countries in Latin America. The company produces tear gas, CS gas, smoke bombs, shackles and handcuffs, bullet proof vests for domestic use, and also markets products for the military such as smoke screens, rescue signals and pyrotechnic training systems. There is relatively limited information about the company online, which has no social media outlets and a website with almost no information about its products and services, or financial information.</p> <p>Falken SA is part of the Etienne Lacroix Group, a French company specialising in pyrotechnics for civilian (i.e. fireworks) and military use. Other arms companies in the group include <a href="https://wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/war-profiteers-month-verney-carron-brugger-thomet-and-alsetex">Alsetex</a> and Energetics Technology.</p> <p>Falken has exhibited its products at events such as Milipol in France in 2019 and the Feindef arms expo in Madrid.</p> <h1>Spain</h1> <p>Falken SA has a close relationship with the Spanish state, with one media outlet claiming that the company is "the exclusive supplier of much of the riot gear of the Spanish police", with media reports covering a wide range of sales of tear gas, smoke bombs and other equipment. Commentators have criticised large purchases of tear gas from Falken, because the Spanish police - officially at least - have reported almost no uses of the weapons since 2003, and raised issue with the fact that the company is run by three brothers from the Bardisa Jordá family; their brother Ismael Bardisa Jordá was a deputy in Spain's People's Party between 1996 and 2008.</p> <h1>Latin America</h1> <p>Falken has, or has had, a relationship with a number of Latin American countries, and its products have been used against protesters across the region.</p> <p>From 2010 to 2015 the Peruvian state-owned company FAME held a contract with Falken, for the production of law enforcement equipment and technology transfer. According to the Omega Research Foundation, the equipment produced under the agreement included tear gas grenades, 37/38mm tear gas ammunition, chemical irritant aerosol sprays, batons and handcuffs. In May 2018 the infodefensa.com website reported that the National Police of Peru had issued an urgent requirement for the acquisition of thousands of rounds of riot and chemical agents, and named Falken as a potential supplier. In 2013, it was reported that FAME worked with Falken <a href="https://www.infodefensa.com/es/2013/07/24/noticia-falken-y-fame-inauguran-una-planta-de-produccion-de-chalecos-antibala-en-peru.html">to open a new bullet-proof vest factory</a> in Lima.</p> <p>The company also has a similar agreement with the Venezuelan state-owned company arms company CAVIM, which allows CAVIM to build products designed by Falken in Venezuela. According to the Omega Research Foundation this agreement was made in 2005 and was ongoing in 2016. The Venezuelan authorities regularly use large volumes of tear gas to break up protests, and it is "standard procedure" <a href="https://foreignpolicy.com/2014/05/09/venezuelas-protesters-are-learning-to-live-with-tear-gas/">to aim tear gas canisters at the centre of a group</a>, increasing the risk of severe injuries.</p> <p>The Omega Research Foundation has also highlighted evidence on Twitter of Falken SA products being used in Buenos Aires, despite appearing to be past their expiry date.</p> <p><div class="embed-media embed-media--rich-twitter"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><p lang="en" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en" xml:lang="en">Expired <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Teargas?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Teargas</a> allegedly used against protesters yesterday in <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/BuenosAires?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#BuenosAires</a>. Image shows 3 grenades, 2 made by Dirección General de Fabricaciones Militares (Argentina) &amp; 1 visually similar to Falken SA (Spain) hand-thrown CS grenade <a href="https://twitter.com/amnistiaespana?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@amnistiaespana</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/RiotID?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@RiotID</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/ProtestarEsUnDerecho?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#ProtestarEsUnDerecho</a> <a href="https://t.co/Nj4nZPsHzV">https://t.co/Nj4nZPsHzV</a></p>— Omega Research Foundation (@Omega_RF) <a href="https://twitter.com/Omega_RF/status/941665413724889089?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 15, 2017</a></blockquote> <script async="" src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script></div></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programmes/war-profiteer-companies" hreflang="en">War profiteer companies</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/201" hreflang="en">Spain (State of)</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/103" hreflang="en">Peru</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/99" hreflang="en">Brazil</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/equipment-training-and-tactics" hreflang="en">Equipment, training and tactics</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/who-profits" hreflang="en">Who profits?</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/repression-protest" hreflang="en">Repression of protest</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42001&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="A1Gzw0Cq81FXax8ai8aCv5QB_Antd3VE64PkG63QiyQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 10 Jan 2020 14:31:05 +0000 Andrew 42001 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Armies, internal security and militarised borders: militarisation in Latin America and the Caribbean https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/armies-internal-security-and-militarised-borders-militarisation-latin-america-and <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41970.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41970" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2019-12/16507411527_b06e92b64a_o.jpg?itok=II5eNo4g 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-12/16507411527_b06e92b64a_o.jpg?itok=4Z9Ekw7l 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2019-12/16507411527_b06e92b64a_o.jpg?itok=4Z9Ekw7l" alt="Two masked, armoured police officers holding rifles, crouch behind a tree" title="The Honduran TIGRES police training with a US Special Forces group. Credit: USASOC News Service, used under a CC2.0 license" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 29 Nov 2019</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Julián Ovalle - Red Antimilitarista de América Latina y el Caribe</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h1 class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">About Latin America</span></h1> <p class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Because of</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> the confusion of the English-speaking world when it says “America”, and so that there is no doubt over what we will talk about in this article, the Latin American people </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">dwells</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> in the vast territory between the southern United States and the Chilean southern Patagonia, which amounts to almost half of the Americas. </span></p> <p class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">Latin Americans are a </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"><i>mestizo</i></span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> ["mixed"] people that continues to mix, and represents to the world something that is unfinished and beautiful. Varied forms of Spanish and Portuguese fragment this unity. A </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"><i>mestizo</i></span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB"> people that has experienced and recounted the story of the existential tearing apart caused by colonial genocide and which, despite the passing of the centuries and modern discourse about multiculturalism, is still dealing with the derision and dispossession experienced by the original inhabitants. </span></p> <p class="western"><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">In line with the Latin American thinker Jesús Martín-Barbero, we </span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">c</span><span lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB" xml:lang="en-GB">an think of Latin America as a landscape fragmented by mountain ranges, jungles, plains, artificial canals, native languages, national borders, different kinds of Spanish, accents, phenotypes and cuisine. My starting point is to acknowledge the history of Latin American culture as a continuous process, subject to the colonial legacy, and which is experiencing a modernity that is more heterogeneous than universal. The modernity of Latin America resides in the particularity of the plural, in a constant crisis of national identity(s) motivated and facilitated by mobility across borders and recently by the transnational issue. It is a fragmented territory where difference coexists closely and inevitably.</span></p> <hr /> <p>Acknowledging Latin America as a region means looking at a fragmented landscape. Before outlining a general context of the militarisation of the region, it is important to point out that addressing the region as a whole means accepting the profound differences between each of the countries that constitute it. However, a common denominator among all the countries of the region is the stamp of violence, an extremely complex phenomenon that does not allow for simple or absolute explanations, but which undoubtedly has a close genealogical relationship with the colonial legacy that was imprinted on those peoples and territories as a result of the bloody homogenising enterprise that sought to make the "American world" disappear and reduced it to the pre-Hispanic.</p> <p>The history of Latin America is the experience of a deep and permanent social conflict that has been related to what Martín-Barbero calls “national identity crisis rhetoric” and which Rosanna Reguillo in turn relates, among other factors, to the “intense migratory flow in Latin America, which was motivated by the horror of dictatorships and the systematic destruction of peoples and dreams” (2005).</p> <p>As a starting point I want to highlight the fact that the history of Latin America in the twentieth century describes a chronic and permanent situation of cultural conflict traceable to its colonial legacy, a socio-political dispute between governments and peoples that collide in the framework of democracies. Our democracies are always subject to inter-, multi-, and trans- national policies, that value the strategy of militarisation as a “legitimate” and effective strategy not just for conflict management, but also as a form of axiological foundation of culture: the ascendancy of violent, patriarchal values. However, Latin America is a land of resistance of indomitable people, men and women who embody resistance: indigenous peoples, peasants, Afro-descendants, empowered women, urban youth, professionals, boys and girls and academics.</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="A still taken from the television, showing a young child wearing khaki uniform and carrying a toy gun on a a parade" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_full" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ab609f1a-a474-48e5-974f-fd7622c20140" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/latam_militarizacion_fusil_roto_oct_2019_relectura_y_ajustes_observaciones.png?itok=cgcxbw-R 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/latam_militarizacion_fusil_roto_oct_2019_relectura_y_ajustes_observaciones.png?itok=cgcxbw-R" alt="A still taken from the television, showing a young child wearing khaki uniform and carrying a toy gun on a a parade" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p>This still was taken from the broadcast of one of the most popular news programmes on Colombian television. The phrase "COLOMBIANOS ACOMPAÑARON EL DESFILE (COLOMBIANS JOINED IN THE PARADE)" refers to the military parade that takes place on the 20th July in Colombia every year, to commemorate independence from the Spanish crown. This image helps us to highlight and perhaps to distinguish conceptually between <strong>militarisation</strong> and <strong>militarism</strong>: <strong>militarisation</strong> is expressed through the presence of soldiers and military devices in a military parade in urban territory, which in this case are implicit in the image. <strong>Militarism</strong> is expressed in this image in the uniformed and armed person of a child, militarism is inferred through the cultural context that resulted in the decision of his parents to dress him up as a little soldier and expose him to the public. Without the intention of making a rigorous conceptualisation, but with the intention of making a distinction, it is enough to say that while militarisation is the visible disposition of military devices (laws, soldiers, technology) militarism is the cultural basis that underlies and sustains it.</p> <p>This article is concerned with presenting a context of militarisation in the Latin American region, of what is visible and quantifiable in some, not all, countries in the region.</p> <h1>United States Backyard</h1> <p>More and more civil institutions and territories are being militarised in the region. Since the twentieth century, the United States has justified its intervention in Latin American countries by arguing that they face challenges of governance, corruption and high levels of violence that smooth the path towards illegal activities (drug trafficking), migration to the USA and instability throughout America. In the current context the security perspective is the axis that shapes government policies. The global process of securitisation (the prioritisation of security policies in the face of threats over welfare policies) in Latin America is seen as a state response to the breakdown of state hegemony in the territorial and symbolic sphere, represented by the entry into the regional scene (and the strengthening) of “non-equivalent forces” such as terrorism, drug trafficking and organised crime. This commitment to securitisation is the contemporary scenario where it is the expansion of the United States military intervention in the region that drives the militarisation of organisations and territories.</p> <p>The fact that the Latin American homicide rate represents 33% of the global rate is a painfully clear indicator of how social conflict escalates to brutal violence, but in turn constitutes a fact that has been useful in justifying the military intervention of the United States. Rebecca Bill Chávez, who was the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Western Hemisphere Affairs of the United States Government and who publicises issues through her column in the New York Times, is a journalistic spokeswoman who reports that Latin America represents 8% of the world's population and 33% of the world's homicides take place in the region; that is, a rate of 21.5 homicides per 100,000 citizens, which is equivalent to three times the world average of 8. The homicide rate in Brazil reached a record in 2018 of 31 per 100,000 inhabitants; for its part Colombia has a rate of 27 per 100,000 inhabitants. Although Argentina has a much lower homicide rate, less than seven per 100,000, 27% of Argentinians claim to have been victims of a crime in the last year. These kinds of incidents and the difficulties of governance in the countries of the region are what have justified the political and military intervention of the United States in the region.</p> <p>Political and military intervention has been a constant in the second half of the twentieth century. From the "Alliance for Progress" - a programme of economic, political and social assistance by the US in Latin America in the 60s, to the "Plan Colombia" between 2001 and 2016, in which the United States invested $10bn in Colombia in military aid, to the “Mérida Initiative” (2008-2014), an international security treaty established by the United States in agreement with Mexico and the countries of Central America to combat drug trafficking and organised crime , these plans and other bilateral agreements with various governments have left a history of a formal presence with US military bases throughout the region. The official US military presence in the region is decreasing; currently the official presence of US military forces is concentrated in strategic points of the Pacific and Caribbean coasts, in El Salvador (Comalpa), Cuba (Guantanamo), Aruba, Curação and Puerto Rico, while a negotiation is taking place with the Bolsonaro Government on the establishment of military bases in Brazil. However, according to Colombian researcher Sebastián Bitar (2017) there is currently evidence of a growing network of informal facilities that supports US operations in the region. The host countries allow, and in some cases seek, participation in a network of “quasi-bases”; installations that, without an official agreement with the national institutions in the host countries, permit the US military presence and operations. They exist in almost all the countries of the Pacific coast of America: Peru, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador and Colombia.</p> <h1>Militarisation of the region</h1> <p>The context of securitisation, as previously mentioned, in Latin America is a response to the perceived threat that the rhetoric of governments bases on the fight against crime and drug trafficking. In the case of the countries of Central America, US intervention and securitisationhas, according to a regional report produced by the Ombudsman's Office of Costa Rica, "opened the door to militarisation for the sake of citizen security.".</p> <p>In general terms, Central American countries have seen an increase in military budgets without this having an impact on an improvement in the state of internal security: El Salvador increased its budget from $191 million in 2008 to $271 million in 2016, while homicides increased from 2,594 cases in 2012 to 6,656 in 2015 to 5,280 in 2016. In Honduras, despite a growing military presence on the streets, murders were not significantly reduced; according to the Violence Observatory of the National Autonomous University of Honduras, the budget of the armed forces in that country went from $2.2 billion in 2008, to 342 million dollars in 2016; In spite of that, murders only dropped from 5,265 in 2009 and 6,239 in 2010, to 5,148 in 2015 and 5,150 in 2016.</p> <p>Throughout 2018, the Government of Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua carried out a military crackdown in urban centres with the aim of exercising territorial control through the repression of a population that protested in the streets because of the increase in the cost of living, acts of corruption in government and actions against freedom of expression. In its analysis of the Central American region, the report of the Ombudsman's Office of Costa Rica<a href="http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/mundo/centroamerica-y-su-fallida-militarizacion"> </a><a href="http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/mundo/centroamerica-y-su-fallida-militarizacion">points out</a> that the “revitalisation of the armed forces and their increasing participation in civil activities, coupled with the chronic weakness of the system of administration of justice and the detection of new and serious cases of corruption in several countries, pose risks for the democratic exercise of power”. The report pointed out that the increase in the size and capacity of armies "may affect the effective protection of human rights."</p> <p>Continuing this path through Latin America to the south, however, may be the opportunity to point out emphatically that in Central America there is a war against the people that is invisible. The phenomenon of militarisation is widespread in Latin America. At present, a trend has been identified in the region in which governments are increasingly handing over police functions to the army. The Governments of Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Colombia have resorted, to a greater or lesser extent, to their armed forces in search of internal security.</p> <p><a name="story-continues-3" id="story-continues-3"></a>In Brazil, President Michel Temer signed a decree in February 2018 that put the army in charge of the security of Rio de Janeiro, stating "you know that organised crime has nearly taken over in the state of Rio Janeiro. This is a metastasis that is spreading in our country and threatens our people." In the media this action has been recorded as an extraordinary measure that seeks to restore order in the second largest city in the country and, in general, in the state of Rio in the midst of an epidemic of violence. It is the first time, since the return to democratic rule, that a government in Brazil has ordered a military intervention in a State. With the advent of Bolsonaro militarisation is continuing. Although the total number of violent deaths in the State has increased, surveys indicate that a large majority of the inhabitants of Rio support military intervention.</p> <p><a href="">For his part, Mauricio Macri, as President of the Government in Argentina has made a regulatory change to the functions of the military: he has said</a> that it is important that they “can co-operate with internal security, mainly providing logistical support in border areas and participating in activities of a strategic nature.” The regulatory change he proposes is due to an absence of a strong political consensus in Argentina since democracy returned after more than thirty years of dictatorship: he announced a reform to the Argentine Armed Forces aimed at the army addressing "current challenges" and referring to the threats of terrorism and drug trafficking, but this reform will also allow military intervention in internal security.</p> <p>In the case of Colombia, the strengthening of the military establishment does not seem to be stopping despite the peace agreements drawn up with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The continuation of the conflict is in the midst of a breach in the agreements and in the midst of a resumption of arms by dissident sectors of the FARC guerrillas, a rearmament that is taking place in the context of a resurgence of selective paramilitary violence against community leaders and where there is not a glimpse of a negotiated solution with armed actors such as the National Liberation Army (ELN), People’s Liberation Army (EPL) and FARC members who have refused to move forward with the mobilisation process motivated by the lack of guarantees for their safety and compliance with the implementation of the agreements.</p> <p>The Law of Internal Security was passed in Mexico in 2017. This has created the conditions for an increased dependency on the armed forces for internal security, at the same time as bringing about an integration of the armed forces into a National Guard. Mexico’s National Human Rights Commission notes that "When the Army has been deployed on operations in a municipality homicides increase by 9%", this clearly shows that militarisation endangers the protection of human rights and can actually exacerbate citizen insecurity... In the book In the Fog of War (2015) Andreas Schedler notes that "the annual murder rate in the country has again exceeded the threshold for endemic violence as defined by the World Health Organization by more than double." In this context, the legislative branch has approved the Law of Internal Security that regulates the presence of the Army and Navy on the streets, as if they were police forces. Since the presentation and before the approval of the Law, more than 750,000 members of the Army and Navy <a href="https://elpais.com/internacional/2017/12/15/mexico/1513305281_940878.html">have replaced the police in hundreds of municipalities throughout the country</a>. Based on this new regulatory framework, the National Guard has begun operations in 2019 on the southern border of the country where it has been intensifying efforts to curb the flow of migration to the United States, and has specifically deployed more than 20,000 troops to work together with the National Institute of Migration, in line with a demand by Donald Trump.</p> <p>The new neo-liberal right-wing government in Chile has strengthened the militarisation of its police, the Carabineros, essentially a military police force. The commitment, in this case is technological and judicial: new weapons and armoured transport, investment in programmes of virtual espionage and carte blanche repression of any kind of social protest throughout the country, particularly the Mapuche people and the environmental disputes caused by large-scale toxic pollution in the coastal areas of the country.</p> <p>In Venezuela, despite the economic embargo and a diplomatic blockade by the right-wing governments of the region, the militarisation of the state has intensified since Hugo Chavez was in power, of the last 15 Interior Ministers, twelve (80%) have been military officials. The current government of Nicolás Maduro is based essentially on the power that the military provides for him and that counters the coup attempts of the opposition.</p> <h1>Border militarisation</h1> <p>The cross-border transit areas of peoples in continuous migration through ancestral territories, which existed before the Nation States, remain militarised. In the Amazon, the largest planetary reserve of fresh water, in November 2017, the <a href="">Initiative, Amazon Log 2017,</a> took place. This was an exercise in military coordination in the tri-border region between Colombia, Peru and Brazil involving the participation of the armies of the countries of the area.</p> <p>In Central America, borders are migratory filters to stop migration to the United States. Those who manage to reach the Mexico/United States border meet heavily armed soldiers playing the role of the wall they have yet to build but have already constructed militarily. After the announcement of the controversial wall on the border with Mexico, in 2018 the Donald Trump government signed a proclamation announcing the mobilisation of troops from the National Guard to the border with Mexico to combat illegal immigration. In this regard, Trump<a href=""> pointed out</a> that “the lawlessness that continues at our southern border is fundamentally incompatible with the safety, security and sovereignty of the American people,” therefore 600,000 troops from the National Guard were mobilised as an initial measure in compliance with the government order.</p> <p>Venezuela is becoming more and more militarised every year, ceding participation to its armed forces in the economy, security, intelligence and generally in all areas of decision and administratio. This militarisation eliminates the possibility of a civil, negotiated solution to the permanent state of crisis that the country has been experiencing for five years now. One of the regional consequences of this crisis is the significant increase in Venezuelan economic and political migration, which has been responded to by the region from a position of poverty and solidarity, although local right wing movements have taken the opportunity to popularise xenophobic, racist and discriminatory responses, both social and administrative.</p> <p>In Venezuela, obtaining a passport presents serious obstacles. The cost has increased by 124%, and applicants face delay and corruption in the processing system. These complications are increased by restrictions that other Andean countries are<a href=""> introducing</a>: “A restriction by Peru for Venezuelan immigrants came into force hours after the Court of Justice in Ecuador suspended the same measure in the neighbouring country and gave the Ecuadorian Government a 45-day deadline to present a contingency plan if it wanted to continue applying the measure." In Colombia sectors of the extreme right are putting forward <a href="https://www.efe.com/efe/espana/sociedad/peru-comienza-a-exigir-pasaporte-los-venezolanos-que-llegan-su-frontera/10004-3729527">arguments </a>about why an intervention should be made in Venezuela. This, while they are making their debut as an extraordinary partner of NATO.</p> <p>Furthermore, the historic and permanent strengthening of the military apparatus and the approach of preparing armies to be responsible for, or at least active in, internal security, and the ongoing militarisation of borders creates an apparent tension with the perspectives posed by the strengthening and financing of the police. The deployment of troops by Brazil to the border with Venezuela after the xenophobic outbreaks is an example of this.</p> <hr /> <p>The Latin American region is experiencing a period of an intensification of regional militarisation.The effects - including the normalisation of violence, arms trafficking, armed gangs disputing and dividing territories with the police, who are militarised in turn by the formation of armed special police groups (such as the "Lynx" in Paraguay) are being felt by local communities across the region. The region lives in an endless spiral of lethal violence, and the military and the police are a constituent element and not the solution.</p> <p>  </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_31 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/242" hreflang="en">Honduras</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/144" hreflang="en">Mexico</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Argentina</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/204" hreflang="en">El Salvador</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/220" hreflang="en">Cuba</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/507" hreflang="en">Police militarisation</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-police-militarisation-them--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them--story.html.twig * field--node--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-police-militarisation-them.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Police militarisation theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/pm-themes/what-militarisation-policing" hreflang="en">What is the militarisation of policing?</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41970&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="1MMPy3NxHi6q56ssDEGBYH-joW91uKukPkW5uUNNfT0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 29 Nov 2019 10:47:28 +0000 Andrew 41970 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Peace and non-violence activists from Venezuela calls for support https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/peace-and-non-violence-activists-venezuela-calls-support <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41705.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41705" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/venezuela-capital-map.gif?itok=HNrQ53xq 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/gif"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/venezuela-capital-map.gif?itok=x9FNR94b 1x" type="image/gif"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/venezuela-capital-map.gif?itok=x9FNR94b" alt="Venezuela map" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 28 Feb 2019</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A number of peace and nonviolence organisations and activists from Venezuela have issued a statement about the situation in the country. The statement addressing the international community, peace and human rights activists, points out the need for free and credible elections for a peaceful solution to the ongoing crisis in Venezuela. Explaining the background, the activists say the solution for the crisis will  <em>“depend on every single one of us and our actions to place enough pressure so that the solution we face is non-violent, and inclusive, with the democracy and justice which the Venezuelan people and humanity itself deserves. We want it to be our voices and aspirations, not arms, which finally decide the future and destiny of our country. But for that, we need your help.”</em></p> <p>Read the full statement <a href="https://www.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/peace-and-non-violence-activists-and-organizations-venezuela-calls-support">here</a>.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41705&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="I_r5lYUDQQqxVJ8oAabMeusufzH3Qf_saIDIc-HQExo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 28 Feb 2019 21:02:33 +0000 cmoy 41705 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/peace-and-non-violence-activists-venezuela-calls-support#comments Peace and non-violence activists and organizations from Venezuela calls for support https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/peace-and-non-violence-activists-and-organizations-venezuela-calls-support <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41704.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41704" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/venezuela-capital-map.gif?itok=HNrQ53xq 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/gif"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/venezuela-capital-map.gif?itok=x9FNR94b 1x" type="image/gif"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/venezuela-capital-map.gif?itok=x9FNR94b" alt="Venezuela map" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 28 Feb 2019</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A number of peace and nonviolence organisations and activists from Venezuela have issued a statement about the situation in the country. The statement addressing the international community, peace and human rights activists, points out the need for free and credible elections for a peaceful solution to the ongoing crisis in Venezuela. Explaining the background, the activists say the solution for the crisis will  <em>“depend on every single one of us and our actions to place enough pressure so that the solution we face is non-violent, and inclusive, with the democracy and justice which the Venezuelan people and humanity itself deserves. We want it to be our voices and aspirations, not arms, which finally decide the future and destiny of our country. But for that, we need your help.”</em></p> <p>Read the full statement below.</p> <h2 lang="en-US" xml:lang="en-US">Open letter from peace and nonviolence activists and organizations from Venezuela</h2> <p><em>Translated by Daniel Cooper Bermúdez</em></p> <p>We, the <strong>organizations and people who defend human rights, activists and promoters of Non-Violence and Peace, conscientious objectors and anti-militarists, who take action in Venezuela</strong>, address this open letter to our friends throughout the world, sharing our opinion about the conflict which is currently unfolding in our country.</p> <p><strong>We know that the decrease in the causes of violence </strong><strong>are</strong><strong> intimately connected with the dignity of the lives of people. </strong>There cannot be conditions of dignity and peace if there is not a decrease in poverty, hunger, inequality, and improvements in the access to basic goods and services for the entire population, especially for the most vulnerable sectors. Violence flourishes in societies without democratic guarantees for participation in free and fair elections to elect representatives and powers. There is no way to promote non-violence and peace if we ignore the causes of discrimination and inequality which have forced millions of people to migrate. To promote non-violence and peace we must advance in the elimination of the exercise of Power from the logic of authoritarianism, unequivocal and militaristic which poses relations between people from the perspective of enemies, friends, allies, and traitors which seek to eliminate – both symbolically and in reality – difference and liberty.</p> <p>Venezuela has been experiencing an accelerated process of significant setbacks to our quality of life, making it harder to access the most basic things which are necessary for subsistence, and deeply affecting the democratic system. Since 2015, after the election of the National Assembly, it was evident that the pro-government political sector had lost its majority, and elections began being manipulated to guarantee that Maduro’s party (PSUV) remained in power.</p> <p>The government does not publish official data and disregards and criminalizes studies and testimonies which reflect a reality contrary to what is shown in the national media, which is fiercely monitored and censored. The Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights of the United Nations reported that 3.5 million Venezuelans had been forced to migrate in the past years. Venezuela suffers a Complex Humanitarian Emergency generated by political decisions, not by natural disasters or armed conflicts. The State is responsible for inflicting damage and has demonstrated that it has no will to repair the damages it has made.</p> <p>In 2018, poverty rates reached approximately 48% of households, according to the three main universities of the country. Inflation reached 1,229,724% and, according to projections, could reach 10 million % in 2019. A single family needs 60 monthly minimum wages to acquire the basic goods and services necessary to survive. In 2017, 64% of Venezuelans lost approximately 11 kilograms of weight and 33% of children between 0-2 years of age suffer delays in their process of growth and development. In a study conducted by Caritas, 53% of Venezuelan households has had to recur to survival strategies such as begging and searching for food in the trash.</p> <p>In 2018, non-governmental organizations reported that 60% of the medical attention that existed in 2011 had disappeared and, according to official data, the maternal mortality rate increased by 66% and child mortality rate by 30%. Since 2017, more than 79,000 people with HIV stopped receiving anti-retroviral medicine. Venezuela has the highest growth rate of malaria cases in the world, adding 43% to the cases of malaria in Latin America. Just in 2018, the cases of malaria increased by 53%. There is an alarming health crisis given the resurgence of eradicated diseases such as tuberculosis (10,952 cases), diphtheria (9,362 cases), and small pox, which has caused the death of at least 5,000 people. This resurgence has been caused by the lack of access to medicine and the lack of prevention and control programs. The Pharmaceutical Federation of Venezuela reported that in 2018, the scarcity of medicine reached 85%. The deficit of beds available in hospitals reaches 64%, 79% of hospitals do not have running water, 53% of operating rooms have closed, and 95% of medicine, medical supplies, equipment, and pieces to repair broken down machines are imported.</p> <p>In 2017, the Supreme Court of Justice tried to annul the National Assembly through a decree, which the Prosecutor General, Luisa Ortega Díaz, declared as a <strong>“rupture of the constitutional order”</strong>. Consequently, Venezuela has experienced the largest cycle of peaceful protests in contemporary Latin American history, along with Nicaragua. Millions of people have taken to the streets asking for free and credible elections, the respect for the constitutional order, the separation of powers and the rule of law. The internal democratic means to change the situation have been blocked, the population engaged in marches, blocked streets, organized walks, petitions, artistic direct action, hunger strikes, referendums and dialogues. The response has been the implementation of a repressive military plan called “Plan Zamora”, with the participation of security forces, the National Bolivarian Guard, and armed civilians. According to non-government organizations, there were 6,729 protests in 4 months across the country, 135 people murdered, more than 12 thousand people detained, 848 political prisoners, and over 230 victims of torture, cruel and unusual punishment, and millions in exile. The result has been a systematic persecution against the political dissidence which has generated the opening of a preliminary examination by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.</p> <p><strong>Nicolas Maduro violated the Constitution by calling for a National Constituent Assembly,</strong> with supra-constitutional powers, declaring a state of emergency to govern without a balance of powers with the legislative body, with which he brought the date of the presidential elections forward, without the minimum conditions of fair elections for Venezuelans to choose a president freely. This is how, in 2018, Maduro was re-elected for another 6-year term, in a political event that was not just, transparent, free, or credible, as evidenced by the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and 60 countries throughout the world, also denounced by the Venezuelan human rights movement.</p> <p>During 2018, after the people’s struggle for the restitution of democracy was defeated, and with the worsening of the Complex Humanitarian Emergency, Venezuela had the largest index of forced migration which the region has witnessed. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, over 3 million Venezuelans have fled the country and, if the situation does not significantly change in 2019, this number could increase to 5 million people. The protests in Venezuela have not ceased. In 2018, there were a total of 12,715 protests, which amount to 35 protests daily throughout the country, of which 89% were associated to social or labor demands, the provision of basic services, health and food-related. In this context, 14 people were murdered, 13 by fire arms. In 2017 the Fuerza de Acciones Especiales (FAES) police force was created with the purpose of conducting a social cleansing campaign in the popular barrios, they also committed arbitrary detentions, forced entries, and extrajudicial executions. According to the human rights organization, Provea, FAES has murdered at least 205 people.</p> <p>On January 10th, Nicolás Maduro proclaimed himself president for a second period, violating the national Constitution and installing a de facto government. The National Assembly, on January 23rd, being the only institution legitimately elected by popular vote, basing their mandate on the Constitution, declared that the Presidency had been usurped and thus assumed the powers of the executive body to create a transitional government which would permit free and credible elections in the short-term.</p> <p>Since January 21st, a new cycle of mass protests began, with the popular sectors as their protagonist, as the neighbors of the barrio of Cotiza protested in the streets demanding an end to the usurpation of the Presidency after a nearby military garrison declared their non-recognition of Maduro has the president. The neighbors’ protest was repressed by security forces, led by FAES. Between January 21st and February 4th 2019, a total of 35 people were murdered in protests, 9 were extrajudicially executed in cases of forced entry after the protests ended for the day. There have been 939 arrests, amongst them hundreds of women, 77 teenagers, and 7 indigenous people.</p> <p><strong>The political, humanitarian, and migratory crises in Venezuela are a problem for the region. </strong>Countries of various ideological positions have expressed their concern for years, and the current situation had become a crucial moment for the future of the country and the region. The 13 countries most populated and most affected countries by the Venezuelan migratory phenomenon created a coalition called the Lima Group, who have recognized the National Assembly, recognized Juan Guiadó as interim president, support the call for new elections, specifically through a peaceful transition without the use of force. Additionally, 21 countries in the European Union have joined the called for free and credible elections, stopping the exercise of a de facto government by Nicolás Maduro, and the recognition of the rightful exercise of executive powers by the President of the National Assembly, Juan Guaidó. The European community has called on the creation of a commission to last for three months to create credible elections in Venezuela. Mexico and Uruguay have proposed a dialogue to create a peaceful exit to the crisis. Colombia and Brazil, countries which share borders with Venezuela, have been heavily affected by the border and migratory crises, and have support the Lima Group’s resolutions, offering to assist with the provision of humanitarian assistance at the border. The United States of America have taken the more belligerent posture amidst the crisis, creating pressure towards a transition as proposed by the Lima Group but, in the case of failure, considering every other option on the table, including a military option.</p> <p>The declarations by the United States government have generated a comprehensible global reaction. Unfortunately, the reaction has not been to avoid a war due to the tragedy which that would represent for the Venezuelan people and the region, also supporting the peaceful exit of Maduro from power so that the Venezuelan people can freely express their will. The reaction posed the conflict as one of Maduro and Venezuelan socialism versus Yankee imperialism. This reaction, by amplifying the Venezuelan government’s propaganda, commits a great act of injustice against the people who suffer amidst a complex humanitarian emergency, who cannot exercise their liberties, and of whom the majority want a political change.</p> <p><strong>If we want to talk about imperialism in Venezuela we must tell the whole truth.</strong> Our country continues being an exporter of petroleum, and the United States continues being a main commercial partner along with China and Russia, which has created significant deals between the Russian oil company Rosneft and the Venezuelan oil company Pdsva which are not public information. Additionally, since 2016, Maduro released a presidential decree which allowed for large-scale mining in the Arco Minero del Orinoco, an area of 111,843.70 km2 – 12.2% of the Venezuelan territory and an area of land larger than Portugal – divided in four blocks for the extraction of gold, diamonds, coltan, and other minerals. This is the area with the most drinking water in the country, it is indigenous lands, and there have been no environmental impact studies or prior, free, and informed consent to the projects, and the National Assembly has not approved the projects, a legal requirement per the national Constitution. The land has been militarized with important negative consequences with the increase in mafia activity, slave-like conditions, sexual exploitation, environmental damage, a negative cultural on indigenous communities who have been transformed, along with campesinos, into miners, along with massacres and disappearances of miners. The public complaints, the possibility of one of the worse ecocides in the region, and the violation of environmental and social rights have been silenced by activists throughout the world. Turkey, China, Canada, Russia and various other African countries are the most interested and active in the exploration and exploitation of mines in the <em>Arco Minero</em>.</p> <p>We must add that Russia has become the great arms trafficker to Venezuela. Rosoboronexport, the large-scale Russian arms exporter, announced in 2018 that it would reactivate joint work with the Maduro government in the construction and opening of an Kalashnikov gun factory in 2019, which had been delayed for years due to corruption issues.</p> <p>Starting in 2016, the Maduro government, became a military government with limited civilian support. Venezuelan military officials, committed to military sectarianism, without any form of public accountability, currently occupy the most important positions in the purchase, importation, and distribution of the markets tied to the complex humanitarian emergency, along with a significant number of Ministries, governor’s offices, state and private companies, banks, etc. In an investigation conducted by Transparency Venezuela, in 2018, 12 ministries and 6 state governments were under the leadership of military officials. The national production and distribution of basic foods, those which are most scarce and which are most speculated upon in black markets are in control by military officials: oil, rice, sugar, beef, coffee, black beans, personal hygiene products, pharmaceutical goods, diary, corn, corn flour, margarine, toilet paper, women’s hygiene products, diapers, pork, wheat, and soy. Members of the Armed Forces coordinate the 9 main wholesale markets for the distribution of foods throughout the country, along with the management of airports and national ports. There are military companies in the areas of banking, finance, agriculture, communications, oil, mining, education, health, life insurance, industry, construction, and contracting. The country is governed and at the mercy of the military, including their logic and permanent war propaganda.</p> <p><strong>Venezuela, for over two decades, has experienced the logic of war which has divided Venezuelans.</strong> This has been a process of polarization that has been in transformation with the passing of the years and which today places people at two extremes: those who defend democracy and those who seek to maintain power through authoritarian means: violating the Constitution and confiscating the autonomy of independent powers, manipulating elections so they do not truly represent the will of the people. Defending a military dictatorship with a civilian head of state, similar to that of Alberto Fujimori’s in Perú, against the majority of the population who seek a peaceful solution in which the voice of the Venezuelan people can be expressed through free and credible elections, so we can choose our destiny.</p> <p>Nicolás Maduro has blocked every peaceful means for the restitution of democracy, the constitutional order, and the gravely needed attention for the complex humanitarian emergency. It has ignored and criminalized critical voices, including those who identify with chavismo who publicly criticize Maduro’s exercise of power.</p> <p>What is happening in Venezuela today is not a case of imperialism versus a legitimate government of a socialist cut.<strong> It is a constitutional and peaceful route which the people are choosing in order to have a return of democracy.</strong> We do not want a forceful military intervention, we do not want more death or pain, we urge the entire world to not ignore the clamor of the Venezuelan people. We can stop a war, we can stop a military intervention, if every unites inside and outside of our borders, raising our voice with us, demanding that it is the people, through truly free and democratic elections, who sovereignly decide our destiny.</p> <p>The Venezuelan conflict has two solutions: a peaceful one, returning to the constitutional order which today is violated by a de facto government through free and credible elections. The second option is through force, whether through the action of the Venezuelan military against the governing elites or through an armed intervention by a foreign military. It depends on every single one of us and our actions to place enough pressure so that the solution we face is non-violent, and inclusive, with the democracy and justice which the Venezuelan people and humanity itself deserves. We want it to be our voices and aspirations, not arms, which finally decide the future and destiny of our country. But for that, we need your help.</p> <p> <em>Caracas, February 10, 2019</em></p> <p>Sincerely,</p> <p>Alba Purroy<br /> Alejandro Álvarez Iragorry<br /> Alexis Ramirez<br /> Alfredo Infante<br /> Ángel Zambrano<br /> Aura Scaramelli<br /> Catalina Valera<br /> Cristal Palacios<br /> Cristóbal Plaza<br /> Daniel Arzola<br /> Daniel Certain<br /> Douglas Gómez<br /> Erick Lairet<br /> Euglis Palma<br /> Feliciano Reyna<br /> Gracia Salazar<br /> Israel Valera Perez<br /> Juan Carlos La Rosa<br /> Katiuska Camargo<br /> Lexys Rendón<br /> María Eugenia Redondo<br /> María Fernanda Abzueta<br /> Norkys J. Salcedo<br /> Rafael Uzcátegui<br /> Raúl Hurtado<br /> Robzayda Marcos Vera<br /> Rodolfo Montes de Oca<br /> Rolanda Larez<br /> Santiago Zapata<br /> Seymar Liscano<br /> William Requejo<br /> Zoraida Pacheco</p> <p><strong>Organizations:</strong><br /> Acción Solidaria<br /> Action for Solidarity<br /> Asociación Civil Oportunidad<br /> Centro de Justicia y Paz -Cepaz<br /> Clima21 - Ambiente y Derechos Humanos<br /> CODHEZ: Comisión para los Derechos Humanos del Estado Zulia<br /> Conciencia Ciudadana A.C<br /> Creemos Alianza Ciudadana<br /> EXCUBITUS DHE<br /> Instituto Mead de Venezuela A.C<br /> Laboratorio Ciudadano de Noviolencia Activa<br /> Laboratorio de Paz<br /> LuchaNoViolentaEnVenezuela<br /> Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos (Provea)<br /> Proyecta Ciudadanía A.C<br /> Psiquearte<br /> RedOrgBaguta<br /> Revista SIC del Centro Gumilla<br /> Unión Vecinal para la Participación Ciudadana A.C<br /> Wainjirrawa</p> <p> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/465" hreflang="en">Front Page</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41704&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="Pzrhnk5RyXQOvWiiTl6OU1SewDqD8s50PyNxvaonM0o"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 28 Feb 2019 20:38:34 +0000 cmoy 41704 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2019/peace-and-non-violence-activists-and-organizations-venezuela-calls-support#comments New conscription law in Venezuela https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/new-conscription-law-venezuela <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--41251.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="41251" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2017-08/15719922_303.jpg?itok=eOTTkPv1 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-08/15719922_303.jpg?itok=GiJOKG_- 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-08/15719922_303.jpg?itok=GiJOKG_-" alt="Young people in the Bolivarian army of Venezuela" title="Young people in the Bolivarian army of Venezuela" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 05 Dec 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Venezuela's Law on Registration and Enlistment for Comprehensive Defence of the Nation was introduced in 2014. Read our new report on it <a href="/en/Venezuela-Law">here</a>.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=41251&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="U60ssPkQg6_pBc8QGJNKqgT6G0BYkm-9O0hI_H-cBgU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 05 Dec 2017 12:49:12 +0000 HBrock 41251 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/new-conscription-law-venezuela#comments Venezuela https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Venezuela <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--4358.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="4358" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 08 Jan 1998</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><address>08/01/1998</address> <h3>1 Conscription</h3> <p></p><p><em>conscription exists</em> </p><p>Conscription is enshrined in art. 53 of the Constitution which states that military service is compulsory and is to be performed, regardless of an individual's social status, as and when the law requires. [2] </p><p>Compulsory military service is regulated by the 1978 Law on Conscription and Military Enlistment (<em>Ley de Conscripcion y Alistamiento Militar</em>). [1] [6] </p><p>The Venezuelan armed forces are very popular as they were established by Simon Bolivár, Venezuela's liberator from the colonial oppressor Spain. </p><p><em>military service</em> </p><p>All men aged 18 to 50 are liable for military service. [3] </p><p>Military service lasts for two years. [1] [3] </p><p><em>postponement and exemption</em> </p><p>Regulations on postponement are not known. </p><p>A conscript may be exempted if he is medical unfit, married, the sole family breadwinner, a widow's eldest son or the eldest of orphaned siblings, a college student with an average of 15 academic marks, a trainee religious minister or a convicted criminal. (Art. 78 of <em>Reglamento de la Ley de Conscripcion Militar</em>). [1] [5] </p><p><em>recruitment</em> </p><p>All men are legally obliged to register for military service when they turn 18. In practice many do not register. Of those who register only 20 percent are actually recruited. [1] </p><p>The military registration and recruitment is done by Municipal or Parish Conscription Boards. Every district is assigned a recruit quota. The recruitment officers are paid for each young men they recruit. In 1994 they got 200 Bs. per recruit. It is not unusual for conscripts to 'buy themselves out' by offering the recruitment officer more money than he would receive for recruiting. [1] [6] </p><p>The average age for performing military service is between 18 and 24. [1] </p><p>Conscripts past their mid-twenties are unlikely to be recruited. [5] </p><p><em>forced recruitment</em> </p><p>Recruitment takes place in public at places were many people gather, such as cinema entrances, schools and market places. Recruitment officers, sometimes dressed as civilians and assisted by the military and police, 'verify the documents' and then arbitrarily force recruits into buses bound for to the barracks. The officers are paid for each young men they recruit. According to Venezuelan COs only lower class recruits get picked as those with economic means are able to buy themselves out. Such forced recruitment constitutes systematic violation of the physical integrity and the freedom of movement and becomes a man-hunt. Furthermore, it is prohibited by law. [1] [6]<br /> </p><h3>2 Conscientious objection</h3> <p></p><p>The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognised. [1] [2] </p><p>Many who resist military service try to evade recruitment and do not respond to call-ups. [1] </p><p>In November 1997 for the first time in Venezuela a group of 34 COs publicly announced their conscientious objection to military service. As of now, the armed forces have not proceeded against them. [6]<br /> </p><h3>3 Draft evasion and desertion</h3> <p></p><p><em>penalties</em></p> <p>Evading military service is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment, according to art. 41 of the Law on Conscription and Military Enlistment. [3] </p><p>Desertion is punishable by 2 to 4 years' imprisonment and exclusion from the armed forces (art. 525, Military Penal Code). [1] </p><p>According to a government source, the penalty for desertion is one to 5 years' imprisonment. [5] </p><p><em>practice</em> </p><p>Apparently, draft evasion is widespread and draft evaders are not searched for. </p><p>Venezuelan COs estimate that there are approximately 180 deserters every year. [1] </p><p>Anyone who has deserted or failed to report for reserve service without justification is considered a deserter and, up to the age of 60, faces arrest and imprisonment. [5]<br /> </p><h3>6 Annual statistics</h3> <p></p><p>The armed force are 79,000 strong, which is 0.35 percent of the population. They include some 31,000 conscripts. [4] </p><p>Every year about 220,000 young men reach conscription age. [4] </p><p>An average of 100,000 young men are called up annually, of whom 50,000 actually perform military service. About 120,000 of the registered conscripts are exempted for various reasons. [1]<br /> </p><h3>Sources</h3> <p></p><p class="small"> [1] ROLC 1994. Informe del taller de formacion para la objecion de consciencia i encuentro latinoamericano de objecion de consciencia. Serpaj, Asuncion, Paraguay. [2] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1991. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1989/59. United Nations, Geneva. [3] Amnesty International 1991. Conscientious objection to military service. AI, London, UK. [4] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London, UK. [5] Consulate of Venezuela in Ottawa, 8 August 1991. Telephone Interview from DIRB with Representative. [6] Red de Apoyo por la Justicia y la Paz 1997. Corrections and amendments to the draft report. Red de Apoyo, Caracas, Venezuela.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4358&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="xt8ToNOZ5j7AMiKGDyiZK8S6ggIqBchAco9ho0Zs6t4"></drupal-render-placeholder> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'comment__comment__story' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * comment--comment--story.html.twig * comment--comment.html.twig x comment.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/comment/comment.html.twig' --> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-3439" about="/en/comment/3439" typeof="schema:Comment" class="js-comment" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-3439" about="/en/comment/3439" typeof="schema:Comment" class="js-comment comments"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1480509243"></mark> <div> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype=""><a href="/en/comment/3439#comment-3439" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en">Conscripción militar</a></h3> <footer> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'user' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * user--compact.html.twig x user.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/user.html.twig' --> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/user.html.twig' --> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'rdf_wrapper' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/rdf/templates/rdf-wrapper.html.twig' --> <span rel="schema:author">Submitted by <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> on Mon, 16 Nov 2009 - 21:16</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/rdf/templates/rdf-wrapper.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'rdf_metadata' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/rdf/templates/rdf-metadata.html.twig' --> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2009-11-16T21:16:00+00:00" class="hidden"></span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/rdf/templates/rdf-metadata.html.twig' --> </p> <a href="/en/comment/3439#comment-3439" hreflang="en">Permalink</a> </footer> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment-body--default.html.twig * field--comment--comment-body--comment.html.twig * field--comment--comment-body.html.twig * field--comment--comment.html.twig * field--comment-body.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div property="schema:text" class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Hace falta actualizar tal informacion. Hoy por hoy el servicio militar no es obligatorio en Venezuela, pero es un deber que se constriñe a cumplir,so pena de severas sanciones.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=3439&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="OKtzvv_CEzaBgLuAWHIL7xVwDNq1zUKQz1EIcwIKa_o"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/comment/comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'pager' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/pager.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/pager.html.twig' --> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 08 Jan 1998 00:00:00 +0000 warresisters 4358 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/programmes/world_survey/reports/Venezuela#comments Venezuela: Ley de registro y alistamiento para la defensa integral de la naciòn https://updates.wri-irg.org/es/articulo/2017/venezuela-ley-de-registro-y-alistamiento-para-la-defensa-integral-de-la-nacion <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--40829.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="40829" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2017-08/15719922_303.jpg?itok=eOTTkPv1 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-08/15719922_303.jpg?itok=GiJOKG_- 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-08/15719922_303.jpg?itok=GiJOKG_-" alt="Young people in the Bolivarian army of Venezuela" title="Young people in the Bolivarian army of Venezuela" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 31 Aug 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>Marcela Paz </span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>On 25 June 2014 the National Assembly announced in official gazette No. 40.440 that the Law on Registration and Enlistment for Comprehensive Defence of the Nation (in Spanish, <em>Ley de Registro y Alistamiento para la Defensa Integral de la Nación</em> or LRADIN) came into effect on the same date. This law repealed the one that partially reformed the law of conscription and military enlistment, which was issued by the national executive and published in official gazette No. 39.553 dated 16 November 2010, and in which military registration was renormalized.</p> <p>The head of the compulsory military record is the President of the Republic, who shall exercise this function through the Ministry of the People’s Power for Defence and other public administration bodies.</p> <p>The military enlistment process will be carried out 3 times a year (January, May, September) and will be evenly distributed among the regular components of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces: army, navy, national guard, air force, and militia.</p> <p>Among the most significant aspects of this law we find the following:</p> <ul> <li>The scope of implementation: The provisions contained in the law are applicable to Venezuelans by birth or naturalization within the age range, legal persons and public and private entities, in addition to the civil or military authorities responsible for registration and enlistment processes in accordance with what is established by this law and its regulations.</li> <li>Age range: for the purposes of registration, age range is understood as the ages between 18 and 60 years old. Consequently, Venezuelans included in this age group are subject to registration. In order to comply with the military service requirement, the age range stipulated is now between 18 and 30 years old, which provides for a considerable reduction from that of the repealed amendment which had established a limit of up to 60 years of age.</li> </ul> <p>However, the scope of its applicability is extended to include the registration of natural and legal persons, Venezuelans by birth or naturalization, to contribute to the registry, and with the administrative authorities that are executing it. Furthermore, Article No. 41 establishes that all Venezuelans residing abroad must be registered in the military registry; non-compliance could lead to administrative or financial sanctions.</p> <ul> <li>Prohibition of forced recruitment: According to Art. 5 of the new law, forced recruitment is prohibited. No Venezuelan shall be subjected to forced recruitment, and the official who orders or executes it shall be punished in accordance with what is established by law. However, once an individual is registered, that person joins the population of Venezuelans who can be called upon to form part of the annual replacement quota set by the President of the Republic and the Strategic Operational Command of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces (CEOFANB).</li> </ul> <p>The new law establishes among its purposes the immediate cooperation between the citizens and CEOFANB. According to Arts. 13, 22, 23 and 36, personal information may be requested, establishing that natural, legal, national or foreign persons as well as civil registries have an obligation to cooperate with and provide assistance to the president, governors, mayors and heads of military zones, setting aside service to the nation. This is combined with the creation of the concept of a ‘replacement quota’ as a contingent of civilians that can replace soldiers in combat.</p> <p>Article 28 states that the organic code of military justice and other laws and regulations that are part of the special military jurisdiction shall be applied to people who are called to be replacements in the military. They will be assessed and given duties as military personnel, not as civilians.</p> <p>Venezuelans by birth or naturalization who are of military service age are included in certain situations, including the following:</p> <ul> <li>Active duty</li> <li>On leave</li> <li>Reserve duty</li> <li>Evasion</li> </ul> <p>The following situations are considered to be evasion of service:</p> <ul> <li>A natural person within the age range who does not register within the term established by law.</li> <li>A natural person within the age range who is registered but, once called, does not report to mandatory military or civilian service.</li> <li>A legal person who does not comply with registration within the period established by law.</li> </ul> <p>Mandatory military registration can be avoided on several grounds without being considered evasion. These are:</p> <ul> <li>Having a certificate of temporary disability</li> <li>Having a certificate of permanent disability</li> <li>Marriage certificate or domestic partnership certificate</li> <li>Evidence of being the only provider in the family</li> <li>Remanded into custody with conviction</li> </ul> <p>Article 71 establishes that persons, once registered and called to perform military service, may be considered unfit to perform military duties, but this matter is at the discretion of the evaluating public official.</p> <p>Adding to these grounds, we have Art. 83, which states that university students may apply to provide civil service instead of military service, and Art. 89, which refers to extemporaneous withdrawals for medical and social reasons that must be determined.</p> <p>Only temporary or permanent disabilities certified by the Venezuelan Social Security Institute (IVSS) may be considered grounds for not participating in military service. For this reason, legal persons who fall within the affirmative action quota of including 5% of people with disabilities on their payroll are required to register in the military.</p> <p>Employment, positions or jobs: A worker can not be excused from participating in the fixed replacement quota. Moreover, Art. 33 states that an employer must allow his or her employees to participate in military activities as well as guarantee their jobs and salary. The law establishes that it is the responsibility of the employer to require his or her employees to be registered in the compulsory military register. Otherwise, they can be subject to fines by the public administration and penalised with administrative procedures like employment clearance.</p> <p>Comprehensive Defence Registry (in Spanish, registro para la defensa integral or RDI): this is a public, permanent, free, automated and obligatory service aimed at registering natural and legal persons within the age range, as well as updating records.</p> <p>Registration and updating information: natural and legal persons in the age range must register and update their information in the RDI through the military district or municipal or parochial registration office closest to their residence or municipality. The documentation required for registration or updating will be determined in the law’s regulations.</p> <p>The sanctions that could be incurred for not registering as a natural person are:</p> <ul> <li>Non-registration of natural persons: 5 to 15 tax units (Art. 100), between 885 and 2655 Bs.</li> <li>Fine for natural persons for not updating their information: 5 to 10 tax units (Art. 102), between 885 and 1770 Bs.</li> <li>Failure of a natural person to serve once registered: 50 to 100 tax units (Art. 105), between 8,850 and 17,700 Bs.</li> <li>Offending civil servant: 300 to 500 tax units (Art. 108), between 53,100 and 88,500 Bs. in addition to the opening of an administrative procedure</li> </ul> <p>There is no deprivation of liberty as a proposed sanction for natural persons in this law.</p> <p>Registration of legal persons: legal persons must register and update their information within sixty days following the date of enrolment in their respective registry. Within the framework of co-responsibility, legal persons shall be categorised within the regulations provided by the law for the purposes of their participation in the security and comprehensive defence of the nation.</p> <p>Duty of legal persons: to process the attainment of employment clearances required by applicable law, legal persons must present their registration certificate at the RDI.</p> <p>Regarding the penalties that can be incurred for not registering as a legal person:</p> <ul> <li>Documentation requirement: public and private administration agencies or entities, owners of businesses subject to public or private law, representatives of cooperatives or community councils that do not require documentation certifying the registration or updating of information in the permanent registry or provision of military service prior to signing an employment contract will be sanctioned with a fine of between 30 and 40 tax units (Art. 99), between 5,310 and 7,080 Bs., without limiting other corresponding administrative sanctions.</li> <li>Legal person’s failure to update: legal persons who do not report a change in tax address, branch openings, company name modifications, change of economic activity or any other circumstance that can change their initial status in the RDI, will be sanctioned with a fine of between 50 and 100 tax units without limiting other corresponding administrative sanctions</li> <li>Legal person’s failure to register: legal persons who do not comply with registration in the RDI within the periods established by law will be sanctioned with a fine of between 50 and 150 tax units (Art. 101), between 8,850 and 26,550 Bs. without limiting other corresponding administrative sanctions.</li> </ul> <p>It is important to emphasize that the fine opens the possibility of administrative sanctions that are not made clear in the law and are at the discretion of the sanctioning authority.</p> <p>Asset-based penalties for engaging in refusal to register, failing to serve, refusing to update or any of the other grounds established in the law are minimal. However, the possibility of administrative sanctions, such as employment clearance for legal persons, among others, should be thoroughly evaluated.</p> <p>Recidivism: legal persons who are repeat offenders in violating the rules for updating information in the RDI will be sanctioned with fines of between 150 and 250 tax units, which must be paid off within the first 30 consecutive days from the date of imposition of the sanction. The penalty will be between 250 and 350 tax units (Art. 104), from 44,250 to 61,950 Bs. without limiting other corresponding administrative sanctions.</p> <p>The imposition of economic and administrative penalties for natural and legal persons who do not participate in the registry or who fail to comply with the provisions established, or who decide not to participate in the updating of information in the RDI, represents a means of coercion to all citizens, since they are required to register in a military registry to be able to exercise their civilian and employment capabilities.</p> <h3>Regarding conscientious objection and Human Rights</h3> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5ab8be96-3313-4a06-bea8-db6c3274d076" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/bcd0e-diapositiva31.jpg?itok=M8SrNMQt 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/bcd0e-diapositiva31.jpg?itok=M8SrNMQt" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <p>The major difference between the old law and the new one lies in the punitive character of the new registration law, where a person committing evasion is clearly defined as a natural person who does not register, does not appear when called to serve or does not update their information in the military register. Conscientious objection (CO) is thereby laid down as a constitutional precept in Arts. 61 and 134—in which alternative civil service is permitted—which are displaced by a lower ranking regulation.</p> <p>This definition of the evader as a subject on the fringes of the law, whether he or she is a natural or legal person. He or she is sanctioned with fines and administrative penalties imposed by the State, meaning that the demilitarization and CO are paid for with assets.</p> <p>LRADIN establishes an obligatory nature for enrolment in the military register for natural and legal persons, violating Arts. 20, 21, 52, 61, 87, 102 and 134 of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CRBV); Arts. 18 and 22 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Arts. 18 and 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; and Art. 22 of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.</p> <p>Article 132 of the CRBV stipulates that promoting and defending human rights is a duty of all persons.</p> <p>The Law establishes budgets contrary to the right to free development of personality in its Arts. 31.1 [sic], 38, 39, 41, 42 and 50 because it stipulates registering as a duty of natural persons.</p> <p>Articles 31.1 [sic] and 35 establish a mandatory nature for registration, otherwise the individual in question would be considered ‘EVADING’, while Arts. 38, 39, 40, 41 and 42 allude to the duty of both legal and natural persons to register in the RDI and, if already registered, update their information.</p> <p>It is important to examine Art. 50, which goes beyond the obligation to register in the RDI, indicating that the duty falls upon the educational authorities of public and private institutions, parents, guardians, legal representatives, teachers, tutors and employers who have under their responsibility the care, guidance and supervision of Venezuelans, by birth or naturalization and of legal age, to urge them to register, which is a legislative excess because the age of majority according to national legislation is 18 years, which is the age to register. Perhaps this provision will pave the way for the militarization of youth through proposals such as Guideline No. 001-16, which provides for the formation of the ‘brave Bolivarian soldier 2016’ thus opening the floodgates for the training and militarization of children and adolescents to perpetuate the status quo.</p> <p>The legal system, through the CRBV, welcomes, recognizes and guarantees the right of all persons to the free development of their personality, which is by nature a subjective, private right with a non-pecuniary character that every human being possesses by the mere fact of being a person. That is to say, it possesses an internal character and process of reflection whereby the individual establishes the guidelines of behaviours to follow during his life, without any coercion, but of their own free will.</p> <p>Therefore, within the faculties that derive from the free development of personality and freedom of conscience, both the natural and legal person can declare his conscientious objection, which is a right we possess to reject, refuse or not accept mandates that contradict our beliefs, ethical principles and values ​​and are contrary to our conscience.</p> <p>As a foundation, we can cite the contents of Art. 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as Art. 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, of which the Venezuelan State has been a party since 1978, and Art. 12 of the American Convention [on Human Rights]. In addition, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, in Resolution 1995/83 of 8 March 1995 recognized the right of everyone to invoke conscientious objection to compulsory military service as a legitimate exercise of the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.</p> <p>Therefore, every citizen has the right to oppose official orders that violate his or her beliefs or convictions. The CRBV allows for non-participation in military activities; therefore, the military registration that becomes mandatory with the enactment of this law, the object of analysis, is a violation of rights. Registration must be considered only for those who voluntarily wish join together with the armed forces or provide military service on an optional basis.</p> <p>It is clear that the mandatory nature of registration causes the law to limit the right of both citizens and legal persons to object to being part of a military structure that is contrary to their conscience, conviction and religion.</p> <p>The State, in accordance with Art. 2.2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, is obliged to take the necessary measures to recognize the rights in said covenant. Since freedom of thought, conscience and religion is a right recognized by it, it is the duty of the Venezuelan State to constitutionally recognize the right to freedom of conscience, as well as to adopt legislative, administrative and judicial measures to protect and guarantee the full enjoyment of that right.</p> <p>In the present case, the violation of the right to freedom of conscience is alleged, since the Law establishes measures that undermine the legitimate exercise of that right. The mandatory nature of the registration described in the Law and the established sanctions give it a coercive nature which makes it a violation of recognized human rights.</p> <h3>The right to equality before the law (Art. 21 of the CRBV).</h3> <p>LRADIN establishes budgets contrary to the right to equality before the law in Arts. 44, 45, 46 and 47 because they make hiring or contracting (Art. 44), granting a driver's licence (Art. 45) and attaining an academic degree (Art. 47) conditional on the presentation of the certificate of registration of the natural person in the RDI or proof that he/she performed military service in the case of having served. Additionally, for its part, Art. 47 conditions the granting of employment clearance to legal persons on their enrolment in the RDI.</p> <p>This constitutes a setback with respect to the repealed law because, although it established the mandatory registration of natural persons, it did not constitute a prerequisite for administrative procedures such as obtaining a driver's licence or accessing to the right to be hired or contracted, thus demonstrating the State's malicious intent in giving importance or precedence to military conscription over any academic degree that a Venezuelan could obtain.</p> <p>Article 21 of the CRBV establishes the constitutional principle of the right to equality, which guarantees that every person must be equal before the law, without distinction. The CRBV and the international human rights treaties signed and ratified by the Venezuelan State stipulate and recognize the principle of equality before the law. Thus, people can not be subject to any kind of discrimination, given the understanding that the law must enforce such equality and not violate this principle, and keeping in mind that the matter of ​​international human rights law is fundamental.</p> <p>In fact, Arts. 44, 45, 46 and 47 undermine the right to equality provided for in the Constitution, since they establish limitations for natural persons on access to work, obtaining a university degree and obtaining a driver's licence, and for legal persons on obtaining employment clearance, conditioning the granting of the same on appearance in the registry. Therefore, we can conclude that a situation of inequality is created between people who do not agree with the military and who, by virtue of their conscience, would not be willing to register or enlist to perform military service, with those who would be willing to provide military service and consequently comply with the law, meaning registration in the RDI.</p> <h3>Violation of the right to freedom of association (Art. 52 of the CRBV).</h3> <p>The LRADIN, in Arts. 31.3 [sic], 38, 40, 44, 46, 97, 99, 101, 103 and 104, violates the right to freedom of association provided for in Art. 52 of the CRBV by not respecting everyone's autonomy as referred to in the law, by subjecting to a compulsory register the possibility of hiring personnel or obtaining employment clearance, and by establishing pecuniary fines in the absence of compliance with the law.</p> <p>The combination of the obligatory nature of the requirement of legal persons to register and update their information (LRADIN, Arts. 38 and 40) together with non-fulfilment of this obligation leads to a legal person being qualified as committing ‘EVASION’ (LRADIN, Art. 31.3 [sic]) and consequently being financially sanctioned (Arts. 97, 99, 101, 103 and 104 of the LRAM). In addition, it affects the possibility of contracting natural persons who have not registered in the RDI or presented evidence of having completed military service (LRADIN, Art. 44) by legal entities. It also limits the development of joint projects between legal persons and the State, subjecting their approval to enrolment in the RDI.</p> <p>These provisions directly affect the right to freedom of association, a right referred to and recognized by Article 52 of the CRBV and international human rights treaties, specifically Art. 22 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Art. 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Art. 22 of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.</p> <p>The CRBV and international human rights treaties ratified by Venezuela recognize and preserve the right of natural persons to associate freely according to their interests, without any greater restrictions imposed by law, except those necessary for the development of a democratic society. Therefore, it is understood that legal measures that affect the right to association can not be adopted.</p> <p>The LRADIN is a rule with very general language that leaves room for authorities to use arbitrariness or their discretion to act against the free exercise of the rights of associations since it conditions important aspects of an association or legal person, like structure and operation. On the one hand, it conditions its structure in the sense that it forces them to be participants in a military register that is contrary to the spirit and purpose of their goals. And on the other hand, it conditions their operations in that they are forced to demand that their workers, upon being hired, provide the certificate of enrolment in the RDI, and the granting of ‘employment clearance’ is dependent on the person’s registration in the RDI, thereby limiting access of associations with legal personality to the processing of other administrative actions that are of great relevance to their operation.</p> <p>The compulsory registration of associations with legal status in the RDI as well as the conditions established in the law affecting civil society organizations are incompatible with international obligations in which the Venezuelan State has undertaken the responsibility to provide adequate, prioritized and effective protection for citizens in the defence of human rights, which, in accordance with the Constitution and international human rights treaties, constitutes a right in itself and a duty to be promoted and facilitated by the State. In the context of these responsibilities, a compulsory military registration not only constitutes an undue restriction that severely compromises the independence and autonomy of citizens and associations to exercise the defence of human rights, but it can be considered internationally a ‘direct attack on the defence of human rights’ because a hierarchical obedience to a military or state authority can prevent—or represent a clear interference and obstruction to—the possibility of protection and justice against acts of violation by officials.</p> <p>Among the rights granted to human rights defenders in Art. 5, Section B of the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms it is provided that defenders may form non-governmental associations. Therefore, the State has the duty to guarantee and respect said right, and under no circumstances should it impede the effective development thereof. Consequently, the Venezuelan State must take this consideration into account, given that the LRADIN is regarded as a threat to human rights activists and advocates in the country by requiring registration as a means of control, which, besides being of a military nature, does not specify its purpose.</p> <p>The uncertainty in terms of the manner and reasons according to which the classification will be carried out can result in rights violations because no criteria are set regarding registration, and it has only been generically referred to a regulation that has not been created, thus violating the legal reserve that governs this matter.</p> <p>This law represents a warning for associations with legal status of any kind, organizations in general and defenders of human rights because they jeopardize its operation and performance: if they refuse to register, as some have already expressed in their contempt of the enacted Law, the exercise of the right to associate and the protection of any legitimate interests they may have could be affected.</p> <h3>On the impairment of the right to work (Art. 87 of the CRBV).</h3> <p>Articles 44, 46 and 47 of the LRADIN are unconstitutional because they infringe on a person’s right to work. On the one hand, in Arts. 44 and 46 of the LRADIN require the employer to request the military registration before a person is hired or contracted. On the other hand, Art. 47 of the LRADIN limits the possibility of a professional attaining a position related to their goals, as they are not awarded an academic title, which is subject to enrolment in the RDI.</p> <p>Article 87 of the CRBV alludes to the premise that the purpose of the State is to promote employment, given that the law, in Article 44, requires as an indispensable requirement ‘for inclusion in payroll or recruitment the certificate of registration in the RDI or proof of having completed military service’. Likewise, it asserts in Article 46 that ‘legal persons must present their certificate of registration to obtain labour claims’.</p> <p>As can be seen, the LRADIN limits access to work because it establishes a prior condition limiting the provisions established in the ‘Decree with Status, Validity, and Force of the Organic Law for Employment and Male and Female Workers’ (in Spanish, Decreto con Rango, Valor y Fuerza de Ley Orgánica del Trabajo, los Trabajadores y las Trabajadoras).</p> <h3>On the violation of the right to education (Art. 102 of the CRBV).</h3> <p>Article 47 of the LRADIN establishes as a requirement for obtaining an academic degree the presentation of the certificate of registration in the RDI, thus violating the right to education.</p> <p>It is the right of all students to be acknowledged for their effort and the completion of a stage in their educational careers through the issuance of a corresponding diploma. This right is fundamental whenever such a document is a legal requirement to continue studies in another establishment or move on to the next academic cycle, which means that its achievement is essential for the effectiveness of the right to educational access. It also acquires a fundamental nature when degree or diploma is required to accredit the suitability of a person to practice a certain profession.</p> <article class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_1_3 content" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c93334a3-e31b-47dd-aab5-cdfcbe9a2207" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_325x325/public/nic3b1amilitar.jpg?itok=_hVfkCsD 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/medium/public/nic3b1amilitar.jpg?itok=fJc0NKIW" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <br /> </article> <p> </p> <p>Access to education, to any degree, should not be made conditional on legal requirements beyond what is necessary, much less should there be a requirement to complete a military process in order to carry out a civil one.</p> <p>On priority being given to military service (Art. 134 of the CRBV).</p> <p>The Constitution establishes, from Arts. 130 to 135, the different duties that fall on the population as a whole. Article 134, meanwhile, characterises the ways to fulfil these duties, which can be of civil or military nature. Likewise, it specifies the aims that guide both military and civilian service, which are the defence, preservation, and development of the country, or to deal with public emergency situations.</p> <p>As regards the civil service, several areas of action are inferred from the constitutional rule. We see an example of this in Art. 130 of the LRADIN which establishes the duties of honouring the homeland, its symbols and its cultural values, and safeguarding and protecting nationality, self-determination and the interests of the nation. For its part, Article 132 establishes the duty to fulfil social responsibilities and participate jointly in the political, civic and community life of the country, and promoting and defending human rights as a basis for democratic coexistence and social peace.</p> <p>Nevertheless, through the Law, the military option is prioritised over the civil one, in this case by making the registration of all Venezuelans within the age range mandatory.</p> <p>In the LRADIN, civil service is subject to refusal to provide military service as is clear from Art. 76 of the aforementioned law where it states: ‘Venezuelans by birth or naturalization who do not perform military service must comply with the corresponding civil service’. Likewise, in Art. 83, in the case of Venezuelans by birth or naturalization who are studying at a university and express their desire not to enlist, they must comply with the nation’s comprehensive defence through civil service. Finally, Art. 105 of the law punishes those who have opted for military service and subsequently do not comply without justification once they have reached the age of thirty-one (31). In these cases, the penalty results in a fine of between fifty and one hundred tax units, and the person is mandated to comply with the civil service.</p> <article class="embedded-entity align-left"><img alt="soy civil y no militar" class="img-responsive" src="https://www.wri-irg.org/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/2017-08/hugo-chavez-exige-mas-militarismo-a-los-ciudadanos-de-venezuela-234275_595_383_1.gif?itok=CIQgE1Ll" srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/2017-08/hugo-chavez-exige-mas-militarismo-a-los-ciudadanos-de-venezuela-234275_595_383_1.gif?itok=CIQgE1Ll 1x" typeof="foaf:Image" /></article> <p> </p> <p>The LRADIN is therefore unconstitutional. It precludes the person from fulfilling his or her duty by voluntarily choosing between civil and military service, and establishes the mandatory nature of military registration.</p> <p>The UN Commission on Human Rights, in its resolution 1998/77, has clearly established that the alternative service must be civil in nature, outside the military sphere.</p> <p>It also strongly draws attention to the welfare blackmail the State commits regarding military registration, when Art. 66 guarantees medical care, dental care, permanence in social missions, clothing, food, housing and a minimum wage. This suggests that the strategic command of the armed forces seeks to interfere with social benefits for their convenience.</p> <p>Article 52 establishes that persons who are in prison or going through judicial proceedings must be entered into the compulsory military register, which makes them prone to being part of the replacement quota.</p> <p>However, in Section F of Article 57 concerning the grounds for not being eligible to perform military service and forming part of the fixed replacement quota are natural persons with a custodial sentence or criminal conviction as a final judgment.</p> <p>Therefore, it can be deduced that persons with alternative measures to prison, first instance convictions or detentions without judicial proceedings, are subject to being registered in the compulsory military registry and therefore subject to serving in the military.</p> <p>It should be noted that the goal of the 1999 constitutional assembly was to give people, in their interest and obligation, an opportunity to serve the country by choosing between mandatory military service or civil service, with the understanding that the provision of this service has the same value, but also as a recognition of personal vocation because some will feel motivated by vocation to serve the homeland via the military and others from their position as civilians and their conscience as citizens. In addition, the spirit of the constitutional assembly was to ensure that, along with vocation, a person could serve the country according to their abilities, skills, and tastes, understanding that any contribution adds to the economic, political and social development of the country.</p> <p>More information about the law and militarisation in Venezuela:</p> <ul> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/pechando-la-renuencia-lo-que-esconde-la.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/pechando-la-renuencia-lo-que-esconde-la.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/15-preguntas-sobre-el-registro-militar.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/15-preguntas-sobre-el-registro-militar.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/el-estado-incumple-la-ley-de-registro-y.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/el-estado-incumple-la-ley-de-registro-y.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/carlos-brandt-el-primer-objetor-de.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/04/carlos-brandt-el-primer-objetor-de.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/03/camimpeg-la-militarizacion-de-la.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/03/camimpeg-la-militarizacion-de-la.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/08/introducido-recurso-de-nulidad-parcial.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/08/introducido-recurso-de-nulidad-parcial.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/08/taller-sobre-antimilitarismo-en-la-ucla.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/08/taller-sobre-antimilitarismo-en-la-ucla.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/08/realizada-la-ponencia-el-germen.html">http://rodolfomontesdeoca.contrapoder.org.ve/2016/08/realizada-la-ponencia-el-germen.html</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhFkDD8MvnY">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhFkDD8MvnY</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="https://vlexvenezuela.com/vid/jessica-duhan-botero-beatriz-656368941?_ga=2.26605693.1716473400.1501518116-1055302018.1501518116">https://vlexvenezuela.com/vid/jessica-duhan-botero-beatriz-656368941?_ga=2.26605693.1716473400.1501518116-1055302018.1501518116</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="https://rafaeluzcategui.wordpress.com/investigaciones/militarizacion-de-la-guajira-vzlana/">https://rafaeluzcategui.wordpress.com/investigaciones/militarizacion-de-la-guajira-vzlana/</a></li> <li class="western"><a href="https://rafaeluzcategui.wordpress.com/2009/11/23/mayor-militarismo-no-es-ni-mas-ni-mejor-democracia/">https://rafaeluzcategui.wordpress.com/2009/11/23/mayor-militarismo-no-es-ni-mas-ni-mejor-democracia/</a></li> </ul> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_6 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-bio--bio-only.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio.html.twig * field--paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--field-bio.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-bio field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This work was completed thanks to all the information provided by Rodolfo Montes de Oca, the work of PROVEA and the Peace Laboratory of Venezuela.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/1" hreflang="en">Right to Refuse to Kill</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Conscientious objection</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=40829&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="gj61ATpZuEdlA2lc67fu6eDKSSQFKxYt-HBtf01CIMA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 15 Aug 2017 13:36:08 +0000 Andrew 40829 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/Venezuela-Law#comments Webinar recording: ¿Son pacíficas las protestas que ocurren en Venezuela? https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/webinar-recording-son-pacificas-las-protestas-que-ocurren-en-venezuela <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--40811.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="40811" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2017-07/vzla-bigger.jpg?itok=gH6jJa_6 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-07/vzla-bigger.jpg?itok=w5zujxCI 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-07/vzla-bigger.jpg?itok=w5zujxCI" alt="Protesters carrying shields gather in large numbers" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 21 Jul 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Recently RAMALC - the Latin American and Caribbean Antimilitarist Network (<a href="http://ramalc.org/">Red Antimilitarista de América Latina y el Caribe</a>) - ran a webinar - <em>¿Son pacíficas las protestas que ocurren en Venezuela?</em> (Are the protests that are taking place in Venezuela peaceful?). Since 1st April, a series of protests have occurred in Venezuela in which more than 50 people have lost their lives. What are the motivations and characteristics of the demonstrations? Are they peaceful or violent?</p> <p>You can watch a recording of the webinar (in Spanish) <a href="https://vimeo.com/226871368">here</a>.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/670" hreflang="en">RAMALC</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=40811&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="Ad6KC7QP5ASBOGiJn8_e4U0V4J1jcxzWLPkCvqaxLQ4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Fri, 21 Jul 2017 13:34:04 +0000 HBrock 40811 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/webinar-recording-son-pacificas-las-protestas-que-ocurren-en-venezuela#comments Solidaridad antimilitarista y noviolenta con Venezuela – declaración de la Red Antimilistarista de América Latina y el Caribe https://updates.wri-irg.org/es/story/2017/solidaridad-antimilitarista-y-noviolenta-con-venezuela-declaracion-de-la-red-0 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--40708.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="40708" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-image--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-image.html.twig * field--expert--field-image--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-image.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-image--story.html.twig * field--node--field-image.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <picture> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_desktop/public/2017-05/miguelgutierrez-672x372.jpg?itok=BfHCN-xr 1x" media="screen and (min-width: 992px)" type="image/jpeg"/> <source srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-05/miguelgutierrez-672x372.jpg?itok=WSROCDtB 1x" type="image/jpeg"/> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/single_page_mobiles_and_tablets/public/2017-05/miguelgutierrez-672x372.jpg?itok=WSROCDtB" alt="Photo: Miguel Gutierrez" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> </picture> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <div class="caption">[node:field_image:title]</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 06 Jun 2017</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--dynamic-twig-field:node-author-name-twig---custom.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig--story.html.twig * field--node--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--dynamic-twig-field--node-author-name-twig.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-dynamic-twig-fieldnode-author-name-twig field--type-ds field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Author(s)</div> <div class="field--item"> <span>RAMALC</span> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>There are antimilitarists, conscientious objectors, nonviolent activists and pacifists in Venezuela. There are also member organizations of the Latin American and Caribbean Antimilitarist Network, Ramalc. We embrace all of them, and send our solidarity and accompaniment. We want them alive, healthy and free.</p> <p>At present, the community of human rights defenders in Venezuela is being subjected to persecution and repression because of their activities. We extend to them our solidarity and support; we are and will continue to be vigilant in denouncing these persecutions.</p> <p>Venezuela is experiencing a cycle of demonstrations carried out overwhelmingly peacefully - as recognised by the Attorney-General of the country - in cities, towns and rural communities - after worrying decisions of the Government of Nicolas Maduro, including: approving a decree on a state of emergency that has replaced the Constitution; economic decisions that have increased poverty in the country and created shortages of medicines and food; suspension of the right to vote; erosion of the powers of the Parliament and the Office of the Attorney-General, and adopting and implementing a plan of military occupation of the territory under the name of "Plan Zamora".</p> <p>We do not want those who exercise their rights to face repression, in Venezuela or anywhere in the world. We do not want the militarised repression of those who demonstrate, or wish to demonstrate, or for them to undergo military trial and detention. The use of military courts against civilians has increased in the last year, and has become a permanent repressive practice that seeks to override civil justice. There have been more than 40 people killed in the context of demonstrations, in addition to hundreds of wounded and arrested, almost 300 of them passed to military courts recently. Denunciations, made by independent Venezuelan human rights organizations, are multiplying day by day, demonstrating that Venezuela is experiencing an escalation in militarisation.</p> <p>We want to stop the process of militarisation that Venezuela is undergoing for example, the formation of militias made up of workers and civilians who receive weapons and military training, and who are under the command and supervision of the Bolivarian national armed force. Participation in this militia is mandatory. Moreover, they have joined groups of civilians armed for suppression of protests.</p> <p>Military plans to deal with the economic and social crisis merely exacerbate militarisation, as is currently happening with Plan Zamora. Different human rights organisations, social movements and even ordinary Chavista groups have described the Government as having practices that could not be further away from what is considered revolutionary, when human rights are violated and society is militarised. For the same reasons, we believe that the current conflict and popular discontent can in no way be an excuse for foreign intervention and violence against the sovereignty of the Venezuelan people.</p> <p>We congratulate those who persist in using nonviolence as a way of demonstrating, without falling for provocations to violence in this process of militarisation. The creativity and originality demonstrated by these nonviolent demonstrations constitute a social resource available to overcome the political and social conflict that Venezuela is experiencing today.</p> <p>Therefore, we call upon the broad nonviolent, antimilitarist and conscientious objector movements of Latin America and the world to accompany, monitor and give moral support to those undertaking nonviolent resistance to militarisation in Venezuela.</p> <p>We extend our words of encouragement to the relatives of the victims of the repression, and ask that all cases are investigated and clarified, and their perpetrators and planners brought to justice.</p> <p>The Venezuelan government must refrain from continuing to meet discontent with repression, and it must permit democratic, constitutional and peaceful solutions to the current crisis that the country is experiencing.</p> <p>Finally, we extend our solidarity to all the Venezuelan people in their nonviolent struggle.</p> <p><strong>RAMALC, May 24, 2017</strong></p> <p>Endorsed:</p> <ul> <li>War Resisters' International Executive Committee</li> </ul> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-author-information--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--field-author-information.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information--story.html.twig * field--node--field-author-information.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-author-information.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-author-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author information</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--authors-and-bios--bio-only.html.twig * paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * paragraph--bio-only.html.twig x paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--authors-and-bios paragraph--id--_9 paragraph--view-mode--bio-only"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-bio--bio-only.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-bio.html.twig * field--paragraph--authors-and-bios.html.twig * field--field-bio.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-bio field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Antimilitarist Network of Latin America and the Caribbean</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/paragraphs/paragraph.html.twig' --> </div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/224" hreflang="en">Venezuela</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=40708&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="J84dhpFHcwv-l9go-JkA0JY_ycQyqHiIYbdTAjYP294"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Tue, 06 Jun 2017 11:07:05 +0000 HBrock 40708 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2017/antimilitarist-and-nonviolent-solidarity-venezuela-statement-antimilitarist-network#comments