Monsanto https://updates.wri-irg.org/en en War Profiteer of the Month: Monsanto https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/war-profiteer-month-monsanto <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--20650.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="20650" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 22 Nov 2012</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_full" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ee275aa6-a3c2-4cdf-b3a2-18447f982317" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/monsanto.thumbnail.jpeg?itok=gBHpkIgZ 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/monsanto.thumbnail.jpeg?itok=gBHpkIgZ" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> Founded in 1901 to make artificial sweeteners, Monsanto has had a long history of controversial products, using litigation and sophisticated lobbying and public relations strategies to battle critics. Many of its products have produced harmful side-effects, including chemicals such as PCBs and dioxin (a by-product of chlorinated herbicides, including Agent Orange), rBGH (bovine growth hormone) and certain herbicides and genetically modified seeds. The company's biggest critics include farmers, scientists, and food safety advocates.</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>Monsanto has been by far the most prominent and controversial corporation promoting the introduction of biotechnology in agriculture. The company has a long and messy history of manufacturing hazardous chemicals. Their products have included chemical warfare agents (Agent Orange), industrial materials (PCBs), food additives (NutraSweet), agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>St. Louis purchase agent John F. Queeny founded Monsanto in 1901 to produce artificial sweeteners. (Monsanto was his wife's maiden name.) Sales passed the $1 million mark in 1915. By the end of WWI the company was rapidly turning into a diversified chemicals manufacturer, and WWII made Monsanto an integral part of the rapidly-emerging military-industrial complex, producing large amounts of plastics and synthetic fibers. (In its 1942 annual report to shareholders, the company lamented that "It is with regret that we abandon our past practice of transmitting to our shareholders an informative and interpretive annual report ... the necessity of secrecy imposed by our national interest surrounds much of the activities upon which the company has been engaged.")</p> <p>In the 1940s, Monsanto began to operate the Mound Laboratory in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Manhattan Project, the development of the first nuclear weapons and, after 1947, the Atomic Energy Commission.</p> <p>On April 16, 1947 -- the company's Texas City styrene plant burned to the ground in the aftermath of a tremendous explosion of ammonium nitrate aboard a French freighter tied up near the plant. (145 Monsanto employees were among the 512 victims).</p> <p>For decades the company continued to operate as one of the largest chemical companies in the U.S. ("Without chemicals," a Monsanto ad suggested, "life itself would be impossible." The company initiated the chemical industry's trend to aggressively advertise in 1977 $4.5 million.)</p> <p>Monsanto was a leading producer of Agent Orange -- the dioxin-contaminated herbicide used by the US Military in Vietnam as a defoliant.</p> <p>During the 1990s Monsanto began to shed many of its core chemical production lines, in order to become the pioneer in industrial ‘life sciences.' The company invested heavily in biotechnology research and spent nearly $10 billion worldwide acquiring seed companies. In the late 1990s, Monsanto became the first company to widely market first generation GM crops, deploying an aggressive public relations campaign aimed at persuading a concerned public that GM crops were a safe and desirable innovation. The campaign backfired, resulting in Monsanto becoming the primary focus of a rapidly growing global resistance to GM crops. By late 1998 a combination of Monsanto’s status as an international bogeyman, and a need for returns on their extensive investments resulted in a loss in market confidence in the company and its share price plummeted.</p> <p>Stability was partially regained through a merger with pharmaceutical giant Pharmacia/UpJohn in April 2000. As a result of the merger, the combined company -- known as Pharmacia -- took over Monsanto’s pharmaceutical wing Searle. The agrochemical and biotechnology division (still known as Monsanto) was spun off as a nominally separate company with Pharmacia retaining an 85% share.</p> <p>In 2003 Monsanto CEO Hugh Grant refocused the company to reduce reliance upon the company’s agricultural chemicals business (including RoundUp, which had recently went off-patent), placing greater emphasis on its seeds and traits business.</p> <p><strong>Dioxin: Science for Sale</strong></p> <p>Monsanto was (along with Dow Chemical) a leading manufacturer of Agent Orange, the herbicide used as a defoliant to combat guerrilla insurgents in Vietnam. The company has a history of politicizing debates over the toxic effects of dioxin.</p> <p>A series of Monsanto studies of workers exposed to dioxin was later criticized as fraudulent by an EPA scientist/whistleblower. The Monsanto scientists who conducted the studies, which were widely used to set regulatory standards for dioxin (since exposure records for veterans were incomplete, epidemiological studies for exposed workers were considered more reliable), admitted that more than a dozen workers with cancer who were known to be exposed to dioxin had been shifted into the "control" group or removed from the study, creating a bias in the analysis. After extensive controversy, media attention, and a failed libel lawsuit against a journalist covering the story in detail, Monsanto's studies fell into disrepute. </p> <p><strong>GM Crops</strong></p> <p>The long term effects of Monsanto’s GM crops on the environment are as yet unknown. In areas where RoundUp Ready crops are being grown commercially, herbicide tolerance is being spread to neighbouring crops and wild plants by cross pollination. Rather than reducing the amount of chemicals used in farming RoundUp Ready crops are locking farmers into a chemical dependant farming system. Several scientific studies have suggested that the Bt technology utilised by Monsanto in their Bollgard, YieldGard and NewLeaf insect resistant crops may kill ‘non-pest’ insects such as the Monarch butterfly.</p> <p><strong>Human rights</strong></p> <p>Having encountered increasing opposition to GM technology in the developed global north, Monsanto have put more energy into pushing their products in the developing global south. An example of this being the attempt by Monsanto/Mahyco to rush their Bt insect resistant cotton through the Indian government’s regulatory process and on to the market. The decision on allowing commercial growing of Bt cotton was postponed for a year in the face massive opposition from Indian farmers and NGOs all over the world.</p> <p>Monsanto holds a patent for 'terminator' technology. Terminator technology involves the genetically engineering of plants to produce sterile seeds thus forcing farmers to buy new seed every year, rather than saving their own seed from year to year. Monsanto has said it will not use this technology but still holds the patents and may use it in future.</p> <p><strong>Accused of Using Child Labor in India</strong></p> <p>According to a study conducted by the India Committee of the Netherlands, a company subsidiary employed children to make cotton seeds, thereby exposing them to Endosulfan and other pesticides, while paying less than Rs.20 (50 U.S. cents) per day.</p> <p><strong>Anti-competitive and consumer protection</strong></p> <p>Monsanto doesn't like the thought of anyone publicly disagreeing with them or worse still pulling a fast one on them. Where their GM crops are being grown commercially Monsanto have paid a small army of private investigators to check whether farmers are growing their GM crops without permission. </p> <p>In 1997, 2 TV journalists Steve Wilson and Jane Akre who had been making a documentary on the dangers of Monsanto’s BST were fired by their employers Fox TV. Fox TV had come under pressure from Monsanto to change the content of the documentary.</p> <p><strong>Political influence</strong> </p> <p>There is a well documented ‘revolving door’ between Monsanto employees and officials from US Government regulatory bodies (particularly the Food and Drug Administration - FDA). This has effectively enabled Monsanto to bypass the regulatory process and get marketing consent in the US for their GM and other products with minimal safety checks. US influence has made it much harder for other countries to implement more rigorous regulatory standards. </p> <p>For more information:<br /> <a href="http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/monsanto">http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/monsanto</a><br /> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monsanto_logo.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monsanto_logo.jpg</a><br /> <a href="http://monsanto.com">http://monsanto.com</a></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/351" hreflang="en">Monsanto</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=20650&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="2Himpb9DHtao9PBYleKvW2za9v-41JWEeiEBG8usohU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 22 Nov 2012 12:25:55 +0000 javier 20650 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/war-profiteer-month-monsanto#comments Monsanto and the parliamentary coup d’etat in Paraguay https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2012/monsanto-and-parliamentary-coup-detat-paraguay <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--20644.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="20644" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 22 Nov 2012</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>Pelao Carvallo</em></p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><div data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_1_3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b139e34c-d269-467c-9a20-21455700bd9b" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-right"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><p><img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/max_325x325/public/Monsantoparaguay.img_assist_custom-266x200.jpg?itok=_xf9vgVO 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/medium/public/Monsantoparaguay.img_assist_custom-266x200.jpg?itok=xcI_XJOM" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /></p> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --><p> Monsanto brought GM into Paraguay in the same way that it has usually done elsewhere: by smuggling. And smuggling imposed GM soya, Monsanto soon achieved its legalisation by means of a powerful lobbying apparatus. And along with this soya came aerial and ground fumigation of glyphosate, and with that poisonous pesticide came diseases, contamination, malformation and deaths. The parliamentary coup d’etat occurred not long after (15-22 June 2012), effected to a large degree by Monsanto's agents at the Paraguayan parliament.</p> <p>A month and a half after the parliamentary coup d’etat, the de facto president Federico Franco, violating Paraguay’s own environmental legislation, approved through a presidential decree the use of GM corn. At the same time, and into September, the use of GM corn and cotton seeds was also approved, by irregular presidential procedures. </p> <p>The work of Monsanto’s lobby after the parliamentary coup d’etat didn’t have any more obstacles to face, having reached the presidential office, which has publicly defended, very vocally, GM seeds. These 'liberations' remain in force today, despite the protests and demands of environmentalists, small and medium-holding farmers and indigenous communities, amongst others.</p> <p>The principal instigator of the parliamentary coup d’etat, the parties which dominate the National Congress, have maintained a close relationship with the transnational agriculture businesses for a long time, owing to the fact that those parties represent - and are largely composed of - agricultural entrepreneurs that have been using GM seeds illegally for a long time.</p> <p>GM crops introduced by the de facto government will bring about the mass use of pesticides, especially glyphosate, of which the Paraguayan people already have a bitter experience: their use has been very damaging, even causing deaths, and it primarily affects indigenous communities and the families of small and medium-holding farmers.</p> <p>These damages were exposed in scientific studies conducted by the Incarnation Regional Hospital, which showed the prevalence of cases of congenital malformations in pregnant women living less than a thousand metres from areas of pesticide fumigation, and also in those whose homes were being used to store the pesticides. The investigation by the paediatrician Stela Benitez Leite showed that the malformations increased in frequency if the people were living 'less than a kilometre' from the soya fields, or if they wore no protection when in the fumigated fields. The investigation took place in 2006 and 2007 and was published in the journal of the American Association of Paediatricians. The results show that at least 40% of the pregnant women exposed to glyphosate gave birth to children with congenital malformations.</p> <p>During the government of Fernando Lugo, before the coup d’etat, the right-wing sector of the government, in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, had already tried to illegally 'liberate' Monsanto’s GM cotton seed Bollgard BT. The protests of farmers’ organisations and environmentalists saw that the National Service of Vegetable and Seed Quality and Sanitation (SENAVE) didn’t include the seed in their records, thus prohibiting its use. </p> <p>Monsanto then began an aggressive campaign through the business sectors and the mass media closely linked to them to boost the use of GM seeds, and at the same time to provoke the fall of those in the government who had blocked the legal entry of GM seeds into the country. The illegal entry of seeds (by means of smuggling) cannot be prevented. </p> <p>The media campaign was carried out by the Zuccolillo Group, whose principal shareholder is Aldo Zuccolillo, owner of the right-wing newspaper ABC Color - the most important in the country. Zuccolillo is also director of the Interamerican Press Society (SIP). The Zuccolillo Group is linked to Monsanto through its position as the principal Paraguayan partner of Cargill, one of the biggest transnational agribusinesses in the world. Cargill built one of the biggest bulk-carrier ports in Paraguay, Puerto Unión, over the River Paraguay in the metropolitan area of Asunción, without making any provision to make the river water - which supplies the city - drinkable.</p> <p>The agricultural entrepreneurs and the right-wing Ministry of Agriculture at the time were also part of this campaign - a campaign which ended the day that Lugo's government was deposed and the vice-president Federico Franco, a liberal right-wing entrepreneur, assumed the presidency. The campaign had been successful; a lobbyist for GM seeds had gained power.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Paraguay</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/351" hreflang="en">Monsanto</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=20644&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="b8Eyc941yluno8OeYJyog2EtHiKbLxkfiPFv4Vfpd1I"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 22 Nov 2012 11:46:46 +0000 javier 20644 at https://updates.wri-irg.org Editorial https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2007/editorial-2 <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--439.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="439" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Jun 2007</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p></p><p>With this issue we celebrate the first year of the War Profiteers' News - an effort by War Resisters' International to provide resources for and about campaigns against war profiteering. We hope you find it a valuable resource.</p><br /> <p>One of the main sections of the newsletter is the “War Profiteer of the Month”. In this past year we have profiled:</p><br /> <ul><br /> <li>a company providing services to the military - <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0606.htm">Sodexho</a>;</li> <p></p><li>big arms manufacturers - <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0608.htm">Lockheed Martin</a> and <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0702.htm">Alliant Techsystems</a>;</li><br /> <li>a corporation profiteering from the Colombian conflict - <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0610.htm">Monsanto</a>, fumigators;</li><br /> <li>mining corporations with dirty hands in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) – <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0612.htm">the Forrest Group</a>; and</li><br /> <li>a financial institution investing in arms production- <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0704.htm">AXA</a>.</li> <p></p></ul><br /> <p>In this issue we focus on the a rapidly growing business - private military contractors who provides “professional” killers.</p><br /> <p>Through all these profiteers we can show how far-reaching and diverse are the activities of corporations that depend on war profits.</p><br /> <p>With our section “The Campaign of the Month” we have shown the different strategies used by the resistance to these corporations. The campaigns so far presented use various strategies. Some focus on boycotts, but that only works with corporations who produce goods for civilian consumption. Other organise direct action trying to disrupt the functioning of the corporations. Others present public reports to get media attention, to make the public aware and damage the corporations images. A successful campaign will benefit from a combination of these, plus tactics we have not yet covered. We hope that we can learn from each others work.</p><br /> <p>In the last two issues we have provided tools for the development of campaigns against war profiteers, with resources on how to carry on <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0702.htm">research</a> on the companies you are or want to campaign against, and also looking at how to develop <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0704.htm">campaign strategies</a>.</p> <p></p><p>We have also had an issue focusing on war profiteering in the <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0612.htm">DR Congo</a>, and have brought reports from conferences and meetings of the network where we meet to work against war profiteers. The newsletter with its section “Upcoming Events” has promoted these different events organised by the network - for that we need you constantly to keep us informed about what you are doing for us to include it, so please write to us.</p><br /> <p>We hope this coming year will be full of good news to report of successful campaigns, like those we report in this issue - that Reed Elsevier will stop organising the DSEi arms fair.</p><br /> <p>Finally let me mention our response to the AXA statement. After we sent AXA the <a href="http://wri-irg.org/pubs/warprof-0704.htm">May newsletter</a>, they asked for the right to reply and for us to publish their statement. This we are doing, together with our response to the statement. Their statement comes as an attachment: I encourage you to read it and judge for yourself.</p><br /> <p>Thank you</p><br /> <p align="right">Javier Gárate</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-theme--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-theme.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-theme--story.html.twig * field--node--field-theme.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-theme.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Theme</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/63" hreflang="en">arms trade</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/299" hreflang="en">Alliant Techsystems</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/347" hreflang="en">AXA</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/301" hreflang="en">Lockheed Martin</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/351" hreflang="en">Monsanto</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/350" hreflang="en">Sodexho</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=439&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="gUszqPkm4afMkD166VIxJTqFob6H4O4h9U3fv5qHo8Y"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 31 May 2007 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 439 at https://updates.wri-irg.org War Profiteer of the Month: Monsanto https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2006/war-profiteer-month-monsanto <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--536.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="536" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Oct 2006</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </p><div alt="" data-embed-button="image_embed" data-entity-embed-display="image:responsive_image" data-entity-embed-display-settings="body_inline_half" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c4b6ba43-0ac4-48e2-874b-a903a7530b72" title="" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-left"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'responsive_image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <img srcset="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/images/monsanto.thumbnail.jpg?itok=ZzJboQwg 1x" src="/sites/default/files/public_files/styles/large/public/images/monsanto.thumbnail.jpg?itok=ZzJboQwg" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/responsive_image/templates/responsive-image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/entity_embed/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <br /> <p>Monsanto has been by far the most prominent and controversial corporation promoting the introduction of biotechnology in agriculture. The company has a long and messy history of manufacturing hazardous chemicals. Their products have included chemical warfare agents (Agent Orange), industrial materials (PCBs), food additives (NutraSweet), agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Monsanto was the first major agrochemical and pharmaceutical company to pursue the ‘life sciences’ concept. During the 1990s it shed many of its chemical concerns and embarked on a spending spree investing heavily in biotechnology research, and spending nearly $10 billion world wide acquiring seed companies. In the late 1990s Monsanto was the first company to widely market first generation GM crops. This was accompanied by an aggressive public relations campaign aimed at persuading a concerned public that GM crops were a safe and desirable innovation. The campaign backfired, resulting in Monsanto becoming the primary focus of a rapidly growing global resistance to GM crops (to a large extent drawing attention away from the likes of Aventis (Agrevo) and Syngenta (Novartis/AstraZeneca) who were quietly getting on with introducing similar products). By late 1998 a combination of Monsanto’s status as an international bogeyman, and a need for returns on their extensive investments resulted in a loss in market confidence in the company and their share price plummeted. Stability was regained through a merger with pharmaceutical giant Pharmacia/UpJohn in April 2000. As a result of this merger the combined company, known as Pharmacia, has taken over Monsanto’s pharmaceutical wing Searle. The infamous agrochemical and biotechnology division, still known as Monsanto, has been spun off as a nominally separate company with Pharmacia retaining an 85% share.</p> <p></p><h4>Monsanto in Colombia</h4> <p></p><p>The aerial fumigation program that has grown out of the U.S. government's so-called "war on drugs" is caried out with Monsanto's products and  is endangering the fragile ecosystems and indigenous cultures of Colombia's Amazon Basin.<br /><br /> The fumigation program, which the U.S. finances as part of Colombian aid package is designed to eradicate coca and other plants used to manufacture illicit drugs. The program indiscriminately wipes out legitimate subsistence crops as well as natural plants, and kills birds, mammals and aquatic life. The chemicals are applied by aircraft and frequently fall on Columbia's indigenous peoples, subjecting them to a variety of health afflictions.<br /><br /> Though carried out by Colombian police and military authorities, the aerial fumigation program utilizes U.S. government aircraft, fuel, escort helicopters and private military contractors.<br /><br /> "Fumigation violates our rights and our territorial autonomy,It has intensified the violence of the armed conflict and forced people to leave their homes after their food crops have been destroyed" said Emperatriz Cahuache, president of the Organization of Indigenous Peoples.<br /><br /> The enviromental cosencuence are huge too, For every hectare of forest sprayed, another is lost to [pesticide] drift and another to additional clearing of displaced crops.<br /><br /> <br /></p> <p>For More information:<br /><br /> <a href="http://www.corpwatch.org">http://www.corpwatch.org</a><br /><br /> <a href="http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk">http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk</a><br /><br /> <a href="http://www.monsanto.com">http://www.monsanto.com</a><br /><br /> <br /><br /> </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/351" hreflang="en">Monsanto</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=536&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="8bHYFyCZTjMvaDmDEOqIuw3crFmIpBw1bP7rhfUhSuw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Sat, 30 Sep 2006 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 536 at https://updates.wri-irg.org https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2006/war-profiteer-month-monsanto#comments Colombia: War Profiteers - Clarifying "who" they are https://updates.wri-irg.org/en/story/2006/colombia-war-profiteers-clarifying-who-they-are <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_entity_view' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'ds_1col' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * ds-1col--node--3097.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node-story.html.twig * ds-1col--node-rss.html.twig * ds-1col--node.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig x ds-1col.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <div data-history-node-id="3097" class="node node--type-story node--view-mode-rss ds-1col clearfix"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node-post-date---custom.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--node-post-date.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date--story.html.twig * field--node--node-post-date.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--node-post-date.html.twig * field--ds.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <time > 01 Sep 2006</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--body--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--body--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--body.html.twig * field--default--body--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--body.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig * field--node--body--story.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>War profiteers are not only those that benefit from the arms industry, but also those that impulse military action and elaborate strategies to profit from war. Among war profiteers we can include:</p> <h3>Large private corporations</h3> <p>Here we refer to the transnational and multinational corporations that need control over our natural resources and our national territories in order to support their hegemonic project and so that relations of economic and political solidarity cannot be improved (which would permit true development of Latin American countries).</p> <p>These profiteers also base their corporate strategy on the aggravation of armed conflict and the consolidation of military and paramilitary actors with the goal of imposing megaprojects which in turn allow them to appropriate large portions of our national territories and political power.</p> <p>The following are some of the corporations that intervene as profiteers in our country:</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <th>Company</th> <th>Megaproject</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Coca-Cola</td> <td>Hydroelectric Dam in the Water and Biodiversity reserve of the macizo colombiano</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Nestlé</td> <td>Ranching and dairy production in the Cauca, Caquetá and Putumayo</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Amoco, Texaco, Exxon</td> <td>Gas pipeline that crosses Colombia, Venezuela and Panamá</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Drummond</td> <td> Carbon and the methane gas exploitation in La Loma, Magdalena</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Monsato</td> <td>Hydro resources in the Vega, Cauca (near the triple frontier of the Amazon region)</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Under globalization these transnationals buy local public companies, in this was gaining control of natural resources such as petroleum, water, oxygen, nickel, leucite, plutonium, and mercury. These last four are used in the arms industry.</p> <p>The consequences of these megaprojects include the expropriation of local communities' land, exploitation of the local labor force, and the aggravate of conflict because such projects deepen the structural causes of poverty and inequality.</p> <h3>Financial institutions</h3> <p>contribute to war in two ways: (1) through the lending of money to war investers, and (2) through the devastating accumulation of wealth which again deepens the structural causes of war in Colombia. 21.9 million people or 49.2% of the population of Colombia live in poverty, with the 14.7% of the population classified as very poor. It is worth mentioning Santander and BBVA banks which are today's leaders in mortgage lending and among the larges financial institutions in Colombia. These companies, at the international level are partners to the arms industry in Europe as well as lending to arms investors.</p> <h3><a name="Heading11" id="Heading11">Nation-states</a></h3> <p>World powers: through economic, military and political intervention in other countries, the world's most powerful nations look to control the wealth and territories of less powerful regions. In the case of Colombia, the USA invests more than US $350 million per year in the internal war in Colombia. Furthermore, multilateral organizations such as the World Bank, the IMF, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the WTO lend money to developing states, increasing the internal and external debt and imposing the requisite of adapting their economies to the neoliberal economic model.</p> <p>And the third world countries, through national security and defense policies make the conflict even deeper. Public order is maintained at the detriment of fundamental human rights. Moreover, beginning in the 1990s, the consensus in Washington has been to promote the weakening of the welfare state and civil liberties while actively backing an essentially inactive promarket state which cedes many of its most important roles to private corporations and transnationals.</p> <p>A further problem is the creation and maintenance of paramilitary structures, be it by the state - as in the case of Colombia - or as the summation of the interests of the private sector.</p> <p>Some examples of corporate power and war speculation in Colombia:</p> <ul> <li>The presidency which sees rights as services</li> <li>The mafia which permeates military structures through drug trafficking and connections with the paramilitary groups. As a result of the proliferation of armed actors in Colombia, civil sector employment is reduced and military-related employment increases.</li> <li>The Colombian and US governments, though plan Colombia and the patriot plan fight against narco-trafficking and for the elimination of the guerrillas. However, the drug war (which includes military action and the use of toxic herbicides) is directed against the weakest parts of the production chain: the coca farmers, the coca pasta producers and the civilian population. The real traffickers, landowners, politicians, and private actors that manage the drug market are often not targeted.</li> <li>The defense policy places more emphasis on increasing military spending to the detriment of fundamental human rights, health, and education.</li> <li>The Defense Ministry not only weighs heavily on the nation's budget, but also has a closely associated group of 21 companies, including Indumil (arms manufacturer), Hotel Tequendama, and the military university. This group functions as a rotating investment fund with invests in security related activities. We ask: what happens to the earnings from these investments?</li> <li>The Ministry of the Interior and the reinsertion to civilian life of the 43000 demobilized soldiers: this 'peace' strategy ultimately seeks to capture more resources for the armed forces.</li> <li>Private security firms contract demobilized paramilitary officers.</li> </ul> <p>The Colombian government exhibits complete complacency in the face of demands and strategic plans from the US. Some examples:</p> <ul> <li>Plan Colombia: this is a military strategy, which is reaffirmed in the October document "ley de la estampilla", and strengthened by the Andean Regional Initiative (IRA in Spanish). Although ostensibly created as a regional antinarcotics strategy, the IRA seeks to reconsolidate the militaries of the region.</li> <li>Patriot Plan and the IRA seek to stop the consolidation of the triple way (Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela), as well as confirm the Amazon region as a source of biological patents.</li> <li>Plan Houston, Puebla - Panamá, Bogotá which promotes the establishment of eucalyptus plantations and the integration of Colombia in the world economy via the interoceanic canal of Chocó, the completion of the Pan-American highway en the Darién region, and the gas pipeline which crosses Panamá, Colombia and Venezuela.</li> </ul> <h3>The media:</h3> <p>The media plays the role of information merchant, trafficking and profiting from stories about the war in Colombia. Furthermore, the media is very skewed toward supporting the status quo, supporting the consolidation of the armed forces, and reinforcing the idea that any kind of opposition is a form of terrorism or rebellion. The media tend to cast a positive light on the security plans of the government, the promotion of private security, and foreign investment and appropriation of natural resources.</p> <p>In Colombia the mass media implicated in war speculation includes:</p> <ul> <li>RCN which provides partial information panders to the interests of political parties and individuals who support the war. In the recent presidential election, no effort was made to create public debate between candidates, rather there was a profilization in favor of the big-business candidate. It is not a coincidence that this media group is controlled by the Ardila Lule groups whose interests are in line with the Uribe camp.</li> <li>A series of programs support the armed forces, including the radio of the national police, the radio of the army, TV programs on the state channel, the 'Impacto' program on the UNO channel, and the 'men of honor' show which presents a positive image of the armed forces and leads people to see militarization as a way to resolve internal conflicts. These communication strategies capture state resources as well as generating their own revenue, which allows them to expand their social militarization programs.</li> <li>Finally the armed forces and state security forces have a series of publications and communications aimed at making the population fell 'safe'. They also close off residential areas near cartels, and militarily occupy public spaces, thereby generating a society based on military control over civilian life in the urban centers.</li> </ul> <p>One would have to arrive at the conclusion that being a war profiteer is a easy and more lucrative business that being and actor in armed conflict. Also it is apparent that those involved in war profiteering are often more Machiavellian than the soldiers themselves. They control the fine strings of power and death, but they don't directly get their hands dirty because they are not the ones who do the killing.</p> <p><i>FOKA (Acción Kolectiva por la Objeción Fiscal)<br /><br /> </i>Translation: Matt Yarrow</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-programmes-projects--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects--story.html.twig * field--node--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-programmes-projects.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Programmes &amp; Projects</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/programme/war-profiteers" hreflang="en">War Profiteers</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-countries--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-countries.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-countries--story.html.twig * field--node--field-countries.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-countries.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Countries</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/270" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--field-companies--rss.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--story.html.twig * field--expert--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--expert--story.html.twig * field--expert--field-companies.html.twig * field--expert.html.twig * field--ds-field-expert.html.twig * field--node--field-companies--story.html.twig * field--node--field-companies.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--field-companies.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <div class="field--label tags--label field-label-above">Companies</div> <div class="wri-main--tags"> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/398" hreflang="en">Texaco</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/396" hreflang="en">Nestlé</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/351" hreflang="en">Monsanto</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/292" hreflang="en">Exxon Mobil</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/399" hreflang="en">Drummond</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/395" hreflang="en">Coca Cola</a></span> <span class="rel-tag" > <a href="/en/taxonomy/term/397" hreflang="en">Amoco</a></span> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-field-expert.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * links--node.html.twig x links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/contrib/bootstrap/templates/system/links.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--rss.html.twig * field--default--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--node--story.html.twig * field--default--node--comment.html.twig * field--default--comment--story.html.twig * field--default--story.html.twig * field--default--comment.html.twig * field--default.html.twig * field--theme-ds-field-default.html.twig x field--node--comment--story.html.twig * field--node--comment.html.twig * field--node--story.html.twig * field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> <section class="comments"> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3097&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="pi4wYdCSI1MD3wqe-k0OH3sUoQkJ5Yb7fsclMx7Yabc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/wri_main/templates/field/field--node--comment--story.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-1col.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/contrib/ds/templates/ds-entity-view.html.twig' --> Thu, 31 Aug 2006 23:00:00 +0000 warresisters 3097 at https://updates.wri-irg.org